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Scholarly Interest Report
         
Paul S. Engel
Professor
Professor of Chemistry
 
e-mail:engel@rice.edu
 
  • B.S. Chemistry (1964) University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA
  • Ph.D. Chemistry (1968) Harvard University, Cambridge MS
 
Primary Department
   Department of Chemistry
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Department Affiliations
 
  • Rice Quantum Institute
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    Research Areas
     Physical-Organic Chemistry
     

    Paul S. Engel - Research

     

    We are investigating the chemistry of free radical initiators and inhibitors of polymerization.  A related area of research is the free radical of single walled carbon nanotubes with organic free radicals.

     
    Teaching Areas
     organic chemistry
     
    Selected Publications
     Refereed articles
     

    Tatara, A.M.; Watson, E.; Satish, T; Scott, D. W.; Dimitrios, P. K.; Engel, P. S.; Mikos, A. G. "Synthesis and Characterization of Diol-based Unsaturated Polyesters: Poly(Diol Fumarate) and Poly(Diol Fumarate-co-Succinate) ." Biomacromolecules, 2017 submitted 1/10/17Submitted

     
     

    B.M. Watson, T.N. Vo, P.S. Engel, and A.G. Mikos, “Biodegradable, In Situ-Forming Cell-Laden Hydrogel Composites of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles for Bone Regeneration,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 54, 10206-10211 (2015).

     
     

    Watson, B.M.; Kasper, F.K.; Engel, P.S.; Mikos, A.G. “Synthesis and Characterization of Injectable, Biodegradable, Phosphate-Containing, Chemically Cross-Linkable, Thermoresponsive Macromers for Bone Tissue Engineering,” Biomacromolecules, 2014, 15, 1788-1796.

     
     

    Engel, P. S.; Gudimetla, V. B.; Gancheff, J. S.; Denis, P. A. "Solution Phase Photolysis of 1,2-Dithiane Alone and with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes." J. Phys. Chem. A, 116 (2012) : 8345-8351.

     
     

    P. S. Engel, H. J. Park, H. Mo, and S. Duan "The Reaction of α-Phenethyl Radicals with 1,4-Benzoquinone and 2,6-di-t-butyl Benzoquinone." Tetrahedron, 66 (2010) : 8805-8814.

     
     

    Alvarez, N. T.; Kittrell, C., Schmidt, H. K.; Hauge, R. H.; Engel, P. S.; Tour, J. M. "Selective Photochemical Functionalization of Surfactant-Dispersed Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes in Water." J. Am. Chem. Soc., 130 (2008) : 14227-14233.

     
     

    Engel, P. S.; Billups, W. E.; Abmayr, D. W.; Tsvaygboym, K.; Wang, R. "The Reaction of Carbon Nanotubes with Organic Peroxides." J. Phys. Chem. C, 112 (2008) : 695-700.

     
     

    Mukerjee, A.; Combs, R.; Chattopadhyay, J.; Abmayr, D. W.; Engel, P. S.; Billups, W. E.; "Attachment of Nitrogen and Oxygen Centered Radicals to Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Salts." Chem. Mater., 20 (2008) : 7339-7343.

     
     

    Chattopadhyay, J.; Chakraborty, S.; Mukherjee, A.; Wang, R.; Engel, P. S.; Billups, W. E. "SET Mechanism in the Functionalization of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes." J. Phys. Chem. C, 111(48) (2007) : 17928-17932.

     
     

    Wang, R.; Cherukuri, P.; Duque, J. G.; Leeuw, T. K.; Lackey, M. K.; Moran. C. H.; Moore, V. C.; Conyers J. L; Smalley, R. E.; Schmidt, H. K; Weisman, R. B.; Engel, P. S "SWNCT PEG-eggs: Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Biocompatible Shell-Crosslinked Micelles." Carbon, 45 (2007) : 2388-2394.

     
     

    Engel, P. S.; Tsvaygboym, K.; Bachillo, S.; Smith W. B.; Jiang, J-J, Chignell, C. F.; Motten, A. G. "Photorearrangement of alpha-Azoxy Ketones and Triplet Sensitizaion of Azoxy Compounds." J. Org. Chem, 70 (2005) : 2598.

     
     

    Engel, P.S.; Duan, S.; He, S.-L.; Tsvaygboym, K.: Wang, C.; Wu, A.; Ying, Y.-M.; Smith, W.B. "The Free Radical Chemistry of the Azoxy Group." Arkivoc (2003) : 89-108.

     
     

    Engel, P.S.; Ying, Y-M.; He, S-L. "An Aliphatic Bifunctional Free Radical Initiator. Synthesis of a Block Copolymer from an Azoperester by Sequential Thermal and Photochemical Initiation." Macromolecules, 36 (2003) : 3821-3825.

     
     

    Fisher, J.P.; Timmer, M.D.; Holland, T.A.; Dean, D.; Engel, P.S.; Mikos, A.G. "Photoinitiated Crosslinking of the Biodegradable Polyester Poly(Propylene Furarate). Part I: Determination of Network Structure.." Biomacromolecules, 4 (2003) : 1327-1334.

     
     

    Temenoff, J.S.; Shin,H.; Conway, D.E.; Engel, P.S.; Mikos, A. G. "In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Redox Radical Initiators for Crosslinking of Oligo(Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Funarate) Macromers." Biomacromolecules, 4 (2003) : 1605-1613.

     
     Articles
     

    Engel, P. "Kinetics of Poly(Propylene Fumarate) Synthesis by Step Polymerization of Diethyl Fumarate and Propylene Glycol Using Zinc Chloride as a Catalyst." J. Biomat. Sci. Polym. Ed., 13 (2002) : 95-108.

     
     Other
     

    J.P. Fisher, D. Dean, P.S. Engel, A.G. Mikos. "Photoinitiated Polymerization of Biomaterials." Ann. Rev. Mater. Res, 31 (2001) : 171-181.

     
     

    J.P. Fisher, T.A. Holland, D. Dean, P.S. Engel, A.G. Mikos. "Synthesis and Properties of Photocrosslinked Poly (Propylene Fumarate) Scaffolds." J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed, 12 (2001) : 673-687.

     
     

    J.P. Fisher, T.A. Holland, P.S. Engel, A.G. Mikos "Preparation and Characterization of Photocrosslinked Poly(Propylene Fumarate) for Orthopaedic Applications."  (Manuscript in preparation)

     
     

    P.S. Engel, H.-F. Wu, W.B. Smith "Strongly UV Absorbing Bifunctional Azoalkanes." Org. Lett, 3 (2001) : 3145-3148.

     
     

    P.S. Engel, L. Pan, Y. Ying, and L.B. Alemany. "Thermolysis of Free-Radical Initiators: tert-Butylazocumene and Its 1,3 and 1,4-Bisazo and 1,3,5-Trisazo Analogues." JACS, 123 (2001) : 3706-3715.

     
     

    S.L. He, M.D. Timmer, M.J. Yaszemski, A.W. Yasko, P.S. Engel, A.G. Mikos "Synthesis of Biodegradable Poly(Propylene Fumarate) Networks with Poly (Propylene Fumarate)-Diacrylazte Macromers as Crosslinking Agents and Characterization of their Degradation Products." Polymer, 42 (2001) : 1251.

     
     

    He, S. L.; Timmer, M. D.; Yaszemski, M. J.; Yasko, A. W.; Engel, P. S.; Mikos, A. G "Synthesis of Biodegradable Poly(Propylene Fumarate) Networks with Poly(Propylene Fumarate)-Diacrylate Macromers as Crosslinking Agents and Characterization of their Degradation Products." Polymer, 42 (2001) : 1251.

     
     

    P. S. Engel, L. Pan, K. H. Whitmire, I. Guzman-Jimenez, M. R. Willcott, and W. B. Smith "Mechanistic Studies of a Linear Trisazoalkane, a New Azimine, and Bicyclic Triaziridine. Azoalkane Homolysis into Seven Fragments." J. Org. Chem, 65 (2000) : 1016-1021.

     
     

    S. Jo, P. S. Engel and A. G. Mikos "Synthesis of Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Tethered Poly(Propylene-co-Fumarate) and Its Modification with GRGD Peptide." Polymer, 41 (2000) : 7595.

     
     

    S. Uppili, V. Marti, A. Nikolaus, W. Adam, P.S. Engel, N.J. Turro, V. Ramamurthy "Heavy-Cation-Induced Phosphorescence of Alkanones and Azoalkanes in Zeolites as Hosts; Induced S1 (n pi*)to T1 (n pi*) Intersystem Crossing and So to T1 (n pi*) Absorption.." J. Am. Chem. Soc, 122 (2000) : 11025.

     
     

    S.L. He, M.J. Yaszemski, A.W. Yasko, P. S. Engel, A.G. Mikos "Injectable Biodegradable Polymer Composites Based on Poly(Propylene Fumarate) Crosslinked with Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Dimethacrylate." Biomaterials, 21 (2000) : 2389-2394.

     
     

    C. F. Billera, T. B. Dunn, D. A. Barry, and P. S. Engel "Thermolysis of Acylazo O-Trimethylsilyl Cyanohydrins: Azoalkanes Yielding Captodatively Substituted Radicals." J. Org. Chem., 63 (1998) : 9763-9768.

     
     

    E. Behravesh, A. W. Yasko, P. S. Engel, and A. G. Mikos "Synthetic Biodegradable Polymers for Orthopaedic Applications." Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 367S (1999) : S118-S125.

     
     

    P. S. Engel, L. Pan, K. H. Whitmire, I. Guzman-Jimenez, M. R. Willcott, and W. B. Smith "Mechanistic Studies of a Linear Trisazoalkane, a New Azimine, and Bicyclic Triaziridine. Azoalkane Homolysis into Seven Fragments.." J. Org. Chem., 65 (2000) : 1016-1021.

     
     

    P. S. Engel, S.-L. He, C. Wang, S. Duan, and W. B. Smith, "Radical Cyclization and Fragmentation of Azoxy Compounds." J. Am. Chem. Soc., 121 (1999) : 6367-6374.

     
     

    S. J. Peter, L. J. Suggs, M. J. Yasemski, P. S. Engel, and A. G. Mikos "Synthesis of Poly(Propylene Fumarate) by Acylation of Propylene Glycol in the Presence of a Proton Scavenger." J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed., 10 (1999) : 363-373.

     
     

    X. Creary, P. S. Engel, N. Kavaluskas, L. Pan, and A. Wolf "Methylenecyclopropane Rearrangement as a Probe for Free Radical Substituent Effects. sigma? Values for Potent Radical Stabilizing Nitrogen-Containing Substituents." J. Org. Chem., 64 (1999) : 5634-5643.

     
    Presentations
     Invited Talks
     

    Speaker.  "The Free Radical Chemistry of the Azoxy Group." McNeese State University, Lake Charles, LA. (February 18, 2004) With S. Duan, S.-L. He, K. Tsvaygboim, C.-R. Wang, A.-Y. Wu, Y.-M Ying, and W. B. Smith

     
     

    "The Free Radical Chemistry of the Azoxy Group." Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX. (10/10/2003) With S. Duan, S.L. He, K. Tsvaygboym, C.-R. Wang, A.-Y. Wu, Y.-M. Ying and W. B. Smith

     
     Other
     

    "Intramolecular Radical Reactions of the Azoxy Group." Gomberg 2000 , Ann Arbor, Michigan. (June 25-29, 2000)

     
    Supervised Theses & Dissertations
     Hua Mo, PhD Inhibitors. (2003) (Thesis Director)

     Hua Mo, Ph.D. Inhibitors. (2003) (Thesis Director)

     Konstantin Tsvayboym, Ph.D. Azoxy Radicals. (2004) (Thesis Director)

     Konstantin Tsvayboym, Ph.D. Azoxy Radicals. (2004) (Thesis Director)

     Hua Mo, Ph.D. The Reaction of Benzylic Radicals with Quinoid Inhibitors. (2005) (Thesis Director)

     Konstantin Tsvaygboym, Ph. D. Studies of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Ozonides and Alpha-Azoxy Ketones. (2007) (Thesis Director)

     Tonya Leeuw, Ph.D. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Photophysics: Structural and Environmental Studies. (2008) (Thesis Committee Member)

     Condell Doyle, Ph.D. Study of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Reactivity and Applications of the Functionalized Species. (2009) (Thesis Committee Member)

     David W. Abmayr, Ph.D. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Induced Decomposition of Peroxides and Non-covalent Encapsulation into Water-Soluble PEG-eggs. (2009) (Thesis Director)

     Hee Jung Park, Ph.D. Measurement of the Trapping Rate Constants and Product Studies of Quinone Derivative Inhibitors with α-Phenethyl Radicals. (2009) (Thesis Director)

     David W. Abmayr, Ph.D. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Induced Decomposition of Peroxides and Non-covalent Encapsulation into Water-Soluble PEG-eggs. (2009) (Thesis Director)

     Sue Anne Chew, Ph.D. Biodegradable Branched Polycationic Polymers as Non-viral Gene Delivery Vectors for Bone Tissue Engineering. (2010) (Thesis Committee Member)

     Eleftheria Leda Kloudas, Ph.D. Development of a Thermoresponsive and Chemically Crosslinkable Hydrogel System for Craniofacial Bone Tissue Engineering. (2011) (Thesis Committee Member)

     Noe T Alvarez, PhD Towards Large Scale Production and Separation o Carbon Nanotubes. (Thesis Committee Member)

     Amanda L Higginbotham, PhD Synthesis and Chemical Modification of Carbon Nanostructures for Materials Applications. (Thesis Committee Member)

     Hee Jung Park, Ph.D. Measurement of the Trapping Rate Constants and Product Studies of Quinone Derivative Inhibitors with alpha-Phenethyl Radicals. (Thesis Director)

     Jason M Guerrero, PhD Towards Photoactive, Directionally-Controlled Surface Rolling Molecules. (Thesis Committee Member)

    Awards, Prizes, & Fellowships
     Member, American Chemical Society

     Member, American Chemical Society