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Scholarly Interest Report
George Phillips
Ralph and Dorothy Looney Professor of Biochemistry and Cell Biology; Professor of Chemistry
  • Ph.D., Rice University Biochemistry (1976)
  • B.A., Rice University Biochemistry and Chemistry (1974)
Primary Department
   Department of BioSciences
Department Affiliations
  • Department of Chemistry
  • Keck Center for Quantitative Biomedical Sciences
  • Smalley-Curl Institute
     Phillips Lab Website
    Research Areas
     Structure and dynamics of proteins, computational biology.

    Research Statement


    The overall goal of the research in our laboratory is to relate the three-dimensional structure and dynamics of proteins to their biological functions. We use techniques of X-ray crystallography and other biophysical methods to elucidate the molecular structures, dynamics, and functions of proteins. Extensive use is made of modern computational methods to analyze the structures and their dynamics.Phillips Research

    One project we have underway is directed towards obtaining an atomic description of the basis for binding of oxygen and other ligands to heme proteins. Detailed three-dimensional structures are being determined for modified myoglobins and hemoglobins and other novel heme proteins, such as nitrobindin, a protein we discovered that reversibly binds nitric oxide and is found throughout the animal kingdom.. We are also working to develop new techniques for observing the dynamics of proteins and nucleic acids using diffuse X-ray scattering analysis and molecular dynamics simulations. The result will be a transition from "snapshots" of macromolecules to the generation of "movies" of molecules in action.

    Organisms have proteins that are highly adapted to the growing conditions in the environment. We have determined structures of enzymes from hyperthermophilic bacteria to reveal aspects of the connections of protein structure to dynamics, which is an integral part of proteins' designs. We have also developed new methods of improving the thermostability of proteins for potential commercial improvements.

    Members of the laboratory are also involved in the field of structural genomics, the solving of structures whose function may not yet be known. The structures often give clues about the functions. We are currently working on structures of enzymes involved in natural product biosynthesis in order to help produce lead compounds for cancer pharmaceutical discovery. More recently, members of my laboratory have become involved in the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, whose mission is to contribute basic science results to the development of biofuel, particularly cellulosic ethanol.

    A longstanding interest in the laboratory is also computational biology. This activity entails the development and application of modern algorithms from computer science and applied mathematics to solve interesting biological problems.

    Research and Teaching Links

    Research Interests 31-JAN-2018

    Statement of research interests: The overall goal of the research in my laboratory is to relate the three-dimensional structure and dynamics of proteins to their biological functions. We develop and we use techniques of X-ray crystallography and other biophysical methods to elucidate the molecular structures, dynamics, and functions of proteins. Extensive use is made of modern computational methods to analyze the structures and their dynamics. A variety of different biological systems are currently under study, including heme proteins, the enzyme adenylate kinase, cellulases, cellulose synthase, enzymes of natural product biosynthesis, collagen-modifying enzymes and structural genomic targets.

    Selected Publications
     Refereed articles

    Annaval, T. Rudolf, J.D., Chang, C-Y.; Lohman, J., Kim, Y., Bigelow, L., Jedrzejczak, R., Babnigg, G., Joachimiak, A., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Shen, B. "Crystal structure of the thioesterase SgcE10 supporting common polyene intermediates in 9- and 10-membered enediyne core biosynthesis." ACS Omega, 2 (2017) : 5159-5169.


    Elshahawi, S.I., Cao, H., Shaaban, K.A., Ponomareva, L.V., Subramanian, T., Farman, M.L., Spielmann, H.P., Phillips, G.N., Jr, Thorson, J.A., Singh, S. "Structure and Specificity of a Permissive Bacterial C-Prenyltransferase." Nature Chem. Bio, 13 (2017) : 366-368.


    Fuller, F.D., Gul, S., Chatterjee, R., Burgie, E.S., Young, I.D., Lebrette, HJ., Srinivas, V., Brewster, A.S., Michels-Clark, T. Clinger, J.A., Andi, B., Ibraham, M., Pastor, E., de Lichtenberg, C., Hussein, R., Pollock, C., Zhang, M., Stan, C.A., Kroll, T. Fransson, T., Weninger, C., Kubin, M., Aller, P. ,Lassale, L., Brauer, P., Amin, M., Koroidov., A., Roessler, C.G., Allaire, M., Sierra, R.G., Docker, P.T., Glownia, J.M., Nelson, S., Koglin, J., Zhu, D., Chollet, M., Song, S., Lemke, H., Messinger, J., Bergmann, U. Boal, A., Bollinger, Krebs, C., Hogbom, M., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Vierstra, R.D., Sauter, N.K., Orville, A.M., Kern, J., Yachandra, V.K., Yano, J. "Drop-on-demand sample delivery for studying biocatalysts in action at XFELS." Nature Methods , 14 (2017) : 443-449.


    Guo, H., Tsai, C-L., Terajima, M., Tan,X., Banerjee, P.,Miller, M.D., Liu,X., Yu, J., Byemerwa, J., Alvarado, S., Bota-Rabassedas, N., Chen, I, Yamauchi,M., Tainer, J.A., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Kurie, J. "Pro-metastatic collagen lysyl hydroxylase dimer assemblies stabilized by Fe2+–binding." Nature Communications (2017) Accepted


    Hughes, R.R., Shaaban, K.A., Zhang, J., Cao, H., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Thorson, J.S. "OleD Loki as a catalyst for tertiary amine and hydroxamate glycosylation." ChemBioChem (2017)


    Kupitz, C., Olmos, J.L., Jr., Holl, M., Tremblay, L., Pande, K., Pandey, S., Oberthür, D., Mark Hunter, M., Liang, M., Aquila, A., Tenboer, J.,Calvey, G., Katz, A., Chen, Y., Wiedorn, M.O., Knoska, J., Meents, A., Majriani, V., , Norwood, T., Poudyal, I., Grant, T., Miller, M.D., Xu, W., Tolstikova, A., Morgan, A., , Metz, M., Martin-Gracia, J., Zook, J.D., Roy-Chowdhury, S., Coe, J., Nagaratnam, N., Meza D., Fromme, R., Basu, S., Frank, M., White, T.,, Barty, A., Sasa Bajt, S., Yefanov, O., Chapman, H.N., Zatsepin, N., Nelson, G., Weierstall, U., Spence, J., Schwander, P., Pollack, L, Petra Fromme P., Ourmazd A., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Schmidt, M. "Structural Enzymology Using X-ray Free Electron Lasers." Structural Dynamics , 4 (2017) : 044003.


    Samuel, Premila P., Ou, W.C., Phillips, G.N., Jr. Olson, J.S. "The mechanism of human apohemoglobin unfolding." Biochemistry, 56 (2017) : 1444-1459.


    Wang, N, Rudolf, J.D., Dong, L.-B., Osipiuk, J., Hatzos-Skintges, C., Endres, M., Chang, C-Y.,Babnigg, G., Joachimiak, A., Phillips, G.N., Jr, Shen, B. "Discovery and structure of a non-adenylate-forming acyl-CoA ligase and reconstitution of its lost adenylation activity."  (2017) Submitted


    Aranda, IV, R., Levin, E.J., Schotte, F., Anfinrud, P.A., Phillips, G.N., Jr. "Time-dependent atomic coordinates for the dissociation of carbon monoxide from myoglobin." Acta Crys , D62 (2016) : 776-783.


    Chang, C.-Y., Lohman, J., Cao, H., Tan, K., Rudolf, R., Ma, M., Xu, W, Bingman, C., Yennamalli, R., Bigelow, L., Babnigg, G., Joachimiak, A., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Shen, B. "Crystal structures of SgcE6 and SgcC, the two-component monooxygenase that catalyzes hydroxylation of a carrier protein-tethered substrate in biosynthesis of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027 in Streptomyces globisporus." Biochemistry, 13 (2016) : 5142-5154.


    Chang, C.-Y., Lohman, J., Huang, T., Michalska, K., Bigelow, L., Rudolf, J.D., Jedrzejczak, R., Yan, X., Ma, M., Babnigg, G., Joachimiak, A., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Shen, B. "Crystal Structure of the Free-Standing Condensation Enzyme SgcC5 Catalyzing Ester Bond Formation in C-1027 Biosynthesis ."  (2016) Submitted


    He, H., Fang, H., Miller, M.D., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Su, W.-P. "Improving the efficiency of molecular replacement by utilizing a new iterative transform phasing algorithm." Acta Cryst, A72 (2016) : 539-547.


    Helmich, K.E., Pereira, J.H., Heins, R.A., Gall, D.L., McAndrew, R.P., Bingman, C.A., Deng, K., Holland, K.C., Donohue, T.J., Noguera, D.R., Simmons, B.A., Sale, K.L., Ralph, J., Adams, P.D., Phillips, G.N., Jr. "Structural basis of the bacterial biodegradation of the highly abundant β-aryl ether bonds found in lignin." J Biol Chem , 291 (2016) : 5234-5246.


    Huang, T., Chang, C.-Y., Lohman, J.R., Rudolf, J.D., Kim, Y., Chang, C., Yang, D., Ma, M. Yan, X., Crnovcic, I., Bigelow, L., Chancy, S., Bingman, C.A., Yennamalli, R.M., Babnigg, G., Joachimiak, A., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Shen, B. "Crystal structure of SgcJ, an NTF2-like superfamily protein involved in biosynthesis of the 9-membered enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027." Journal of Antibiotics , 69 (2016) : 71-740.


    Huber, T.D., Wang, F., Singh, S., Johnson, B.B., Zhang, J., Sunkara, M., Van Lanen, S.G., Morris, A.J., Thorson, J.S. "Functional AdoMet isosteres resistant to classical AdoMet degradation pathways." ACS Chemical Biology (2016)


    Rudolf, J.D., Dong, L.-B., Cao, H., Hatzos-Skintges, C., Osipiuk, J., Endres, M., Chang, C.-Y., Ma, M., Babnigg, G., Yan, X., Joachimiak, A., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Shen, B. "Structure and Activity of PtmT2, an ent-Copalyl Diphosphate Synthase from Streptomyces platensis ." CB00739 JACS (2016)


    Su, Z., Wang, F., Lee, J.H., Stephens, K.E., Papazyan, R., Voronina, E., Krautkamer, K.A., Raman, A., Thorpe, J.J., Boersma, M.D., Kuznetsov, V.I., Miller, M.D., Taverna, S.D., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Denu, J.M. "Reader domain specificity and lysine demethylase-4 family function." Nature Communications , 7 (2016) : 13387.


    Samuel, Premila P., Smith, L.P., Phillips, G.N., Jr. Olson, J.S., Apoglobin stability is the major factor governing both cell-free and in vivo expression of holoMb,  J. Biol. Chem. 290(39):23479-95 (2015) PMCID: PMC4583012 


    Aceti, D.J., Bingman, C.A., Wrobel, R.L., Ferderick, R.O., Makino, S., Nichols, K.W., Sahu, S.C., Bergeman, L.F., Blommel, P.G., Cornilescu, C.C., Gromek, K.A., Hwang, S., Primm, J.G., Sabat, G., Vojtik, F.C., Volkman, B.F., Zolnai, Z., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Markley, J.L., Fox, B.G., Expression platforms for producing eukaryotic proteins: a comparison of E. coli cell-based and wheat germ cell-free synthesis, affinity and solubility tags, and cloning strategies.  J Struct Funct Genomics. 16:67-80 (2015) PMCID: PMC4430420 [Available on 2016-06-01] 


    Auldridge, M.E., Cao, H., Sen, S., Franz., L.P., Bingman, C.A., Yennamalli, R.M., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Mead, D., Steinmetz, E.J., LucY: a versatile new fluorescent reporter protein. PLOS One 10:e0124272 (2015). PMCID:PMC4408115


    Bae, E., Moon, S., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Molecular dynamics simulation of a psychrophilic adenylate kinase, J. Korean Society for Appl. Biol. Chem. 58:209-212 (2015).


    Helmich KE, Pereira JH, Gall DL, Heins RA, McAndrew RP, Bingman CA, Deng K, Holland KC, Noguera DR, Simmons BA, Sale KL, Ralph J, Donohue TJ, Adams PD, Phillips GN Jr. Structural basis of stereospecificity in the bacterial enzymatic cleavage of β-aryl ether bonds in lignin. J Biol Chem.  pii: jbc.M115.694307. [Epub ahead of print] (2015)


    Huber, T.D., Wang, F., Singh, S., Johnson, B.B., Zhang, J., Sunkara, M., Van Lanen, S.G., Morris, A.J., Thorson, J.S., Functional AdoMet isosteres resistant to classical AdoMet degradation pathways (submitted)


    Kim, D.J., Bitto, E., Bingman, C.A., Kim, H.-J., Han, B.Y., Phillips, G.N., Jr. Crystal structure of the protein At3g01520, a eukaryotic universal stress protein-like protein from Arabidopsis thaliana in complex with AMP, Proteins83(7):1368-73  (2015) PMCID: PMC4624624 [Available on 2016-07-01] 


    Lohman, J.R., Ma, M., Osipiuk, J., Nocek, B., Kim, Y., Changsoo, C., Cuff, M., Mack J., Bigelow, L., Li, H., Endres, M, Babnigg, G., Joachimiak, J., Phillips, G.N., Jr., and Shen, B. Structural and evolutionary relationships of “AT-less” type I polyketide synthase ketosynthases. PNAS 112:12693-12698 (2015). PMCID: PMC4611616 [Available on 2016-04-13]


    Lu, H., Wang, F., Phillips, G.N. Jr. Structural dynamics of CalS11 methyltransferase using crystallographic ensemble refinements. (in preparation)


    Park, M.S., Bitto, B., Bingman, C.A., Kim, K.R., Miller, M.D., Kim, H.-J., Han, B.W., Phillips, G.N., Jr. Crystal structure of human protein N-terminal glutamine amidohydrolase, an initial component of the N-end rule pathway. PLoS One 9:e111142 (2014) PMCID:PMC4214742


    Rudolf, J.D., Bigelow, L., Chang, C., Cuff, M.E., Lohman, J.R., Chang, C.-Y., Ma, M., Yang, D., Clancy, S., Babnigg, G., Joachimiak, A., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Shen, B., Crystal structure of the zorbamycin-binding protein ZbmA, the primary self-resistance element in Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC21892, Biochemistry 54(45):6842-51 (2015) PMID:26512730


     Singh, S., Kim, Y., Wang, F., Bigelow, L., Endres, M., Kharel, M.K., Babnigg, G., Bingman ,C.A., Joachimiak, A., Thorson, J.S., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Structural characterization of AtmS13, a putative sugar aminotransferase involved in indolocarbazole AT2433 aminopentose biosynthesis Proteins. 2015; 83(8):1547-54 (2015) PMCID: PMC4570032 


    Singh, S., Michalska, K., Bigelow, L., Endres, M., Kharel, M.K., Babnigg, G., Ragothaman, Y.A., Bingman, C.A., Joachimiak, A., Thorson, J.S., Phillips, G.N., Jr. Structural characterization of CalS8, a TDP-α-D-glucose dehydrogenase involved in calicheamicin aminodideoxypentose biosynthesis, J. Biol. Chem. 290:26249-26258 (2015) PMCID: PMC4646273 


    Traeger, L.L., Volkening, J.D., Gallant, J.R., Moffett, H., Chen, P.-H., Novina, C.D., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Anand, R., Wells, G.B., Pinch, M., Guth, G., Unquez, G.A., Albert, J.S., Zakon, P.S., Sussman, M.R. , H.H., Manoj. Unique patterns of protein sequence evolution and miRNA expression in the South American strong voltage electric eel (Electrophorus electricus) BMC Genomics 16:243 (2015) PMCID:PMC4393597


    Wang, F., Singh, S., Xu, W., Helmich, K.E., Miller, M.D., Cao, H., Bingman, C.A., Thorson, J.S., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Structural basis for the stereochemical control of amine installation in nucleotide sugar aminotransferases ACS Chemical Biology 10(9):2048-56.  (2015) PMCID: PMC4575645 [Available on 2016-09-18] 


    Weerth, R.S., Michalska, K., Bingman, C.A,. Yennamalli, R.M., Li, H., Jedrzejczak, R., Wang, F., Babnigg, G., Joachemiak, A., Thomas, M.G., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Structure of a cupin protein from photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii tt01 at 1.4 Å resolution, Proteins 83:383-388 (2015). PMCID:PMC4300268


    Yennamalli, R.M., Tan, K., Bigelow, L., Jedrzejczak, R., Babmigg, G., Bingman, C.A., Joachimiak, A., Kharel, M.K., Singh, S., Thorson, J., Phillips, G.N., Jr. Structural dynamics study of a methionine gamma-synthase involved in calicheamicin biosynthesis (in preparation)


    AJ Book, RM Yennamalli, TE Takasuka, CR Currie, GNP Jr, BG Fox "Evolution of substrate specificity in bacterial AA10 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases." NMR, 1 (1) (2014) : 17-19.


    Fengbin Wang, Shanteri Singh, Jianjun Zhang, Tyler D Huber, Kate E Helmich, Manjula Sunkara, Katherine A Hurley, Randal D Goff, Craig A Bingman, Andrew J Morris, Jon S Thorson, George N Phillips "Understanding molecular recognition of promiscuity of thermophilic methionine adenosyltransferase sMAT from Sulfolobus solfataricus." FEBS Journal, 281 (18) (2014) : 4224-4239.


    H Cao, JD Walton, P Brumm, GN Phillips "Structure and substrate specificity of a eukaryotic fucosidase from Fusarium graminearum." Journal of Biological Chemistry, 289 (37) (2014) : 25624-25638.


    JE Lomax, CM Bianchetti, A Chang, GN Phillips, BG Fox, RT Raines "Functional evolution of ribonuclease inhibitor: Insights from birds and reptiles." Journal of molecular biology, 426 (17) (2014) : 3041-3056.


    Jason R Gallant, Lindsay L Traeger, Jeremy D Volkening, Howell Moffett, Po-Hao Chen, Carl D Novina, George N Phillips, Rene Anand, Gregg B Wells, Matthew Pinch, Robert Güth, Graciela A Unguez, James S Albert, Harold H Zakon, Manoj P Samanta, Michael R Sussman "Genomic basis for the convergent evolution of electric organs." Science 344 (6191), 1522-1525 (2014)


    Jeremy R Lohman, Ming Ma, Marianne E Cuff, Lance Bigelow, Jessica Bearden, Gyorgy Babnigg, Andrzej Joachimiak, George N Phillips, Ben Shen "The crystal structure of BlmI as a model for nonribosomal peptide synthetase peptidyl carrier proteins." Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics, 82(7) (2014) : 1210-1218.


    KK Desai, CA Bingman, CL Cheng, GN Phillips, RT Raines "Structure of RNA 3′-phosphate cyclase bound to substrate RNA." RNA, 20 (10) (2014) : 1560-1566.


    KK Desai, CL Cheng, CA Bingman, GN Phillips, RT Raines "A tRNA splicing operon: archease endows RtcB with dual GTP/ATP cofactor specificity and accelerates RNA ligation." Nucleic acids research, 42 (6) (2014) : 3931-3942.


    Mi Seul Park, Eduard Bitto, Kyung Rok Kim, Craig A Bingman, Mitchell D Miller, Hyun-Jung Kim, Byung Woo Han, George N Phillips Jr "Crystal Structure of Human Protein N-Terminal Glutamine Amidohydrolase, an Initial Component of the N-End Rule Pathway." PLoS One, 9 (10) (2014) : e111142.


    R Yennamalli, R Arangarasan, A Bryden, M Gleicher, GN Phillips Jr "Using a commodity high-definition television for collaborative structural biology." Journal of applied crystallography , 47 (3) (2014) : 1153-1157.


    S Moon, D Jung, GN Phillips, E Bae "An integrated approach for thermal stabilization of a mesophilic adenylate kinase." Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics, 82 (9) (2014) : 1947-1959.


    S Moon, RM Bannen, TJ Rutkoski, GN Phillips, E Bae "Effectiveness and limitations of local structural entropy optimization in the thermal stabilization of mesophilic and thermophilic adenylate kinases." Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics, 82 (10) (2014) : 2631-2642.


    Saeid Karkehabadi, Kate E Helmich, Thijs Kaper, Henrik Hansson, Nils-Egil Mikkelsen, Mikael Gudmundsson, Kathleen Piens, Meredith Fujdala, Goutami Banerjee, John S Scott-Craig, Jonathan D Walton, George N Phillips, Mats Sandgren "Biochemical Characterization and Crystal Structures of a Fungal Family 3 β-Glucosidase, Cel3A from Hypocrea jecorina." Journal of Biological Chemistry, 289(45) (2014) : 31624-31637.


    Sherif I Elshahawi, Theresa A Ramelot, Jayaraman Seetharaman, Jing Chen, Shanteri Singh, Yunhuang Yang, Kari Pederson, Madan K Kharel, Rong Xiao, Scott Lew, Ragothaman M Yennamalli, Mitchell D Miller, Fengbin Wang, Liang Tong, Gaetano T Montelione, Michael A Kennedy, Craig A Bingman, Haining Zhu, George N Phillips Jr, Jon S Thorson "Structure-Guided Functional Characterization of Enediyne Self-Sacrifice Resistance Proteins, CalU16 and CalU19." ACS chemical biology, 9 (10) (2014) : 2347-2358.


    Bianchetti CM, Brumm P, Smith RW, Dyer K, Hura GL, Rutkoski TJ, Phillips GN Jr. "Structure and mechanism of Endoglucanase D from Clostridium cellulovorans." J Mol Biol., 425(22) (2013) : 4267-85.


    Bryden, A., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Griguer, Y., Moxon, J., and Gleicher, M. "Improving collaboration visualization of structural biology." International Symposium on Visual ComputingIn Press


    Burgie, S.E., Walker, J.M., Phillips, G.N., Jr, Vierstra, R.D. "A photo-labile thioether linkage to phycoviolobilin provides the foundation for the blue/green photocycles in DXCF-cyanobacteriochromes." Structure, 21(1) (2013) : 88-97.


    Desai KK, Bingman CA, Phillips GN Jr, Raines RT. "Structures of the noncanonical RNA ligase RtcB reveal the mechanism of histidine guanylylation." Biochemistry, 52(15) (2013) : 2518-25.


    Lohman JR, Bingman CA, Phillips GN Jr, Shen B. "Structure of the bifunctional acyltransferase/decarboxylase LnmK from the leinamycin biosynthetic pathway revealing novel activity for a double-hot-dog fold." Biochemistry, 52(5) (2013) : 902-11.


    Lohman, J.R., Ma, M., Cuff, M.D., Bigelow, L., Bearden, J., Babnigg, G., Joachemiak, A., Phillips, G.N., Jr. and Shen, B. "The crystal structure of BlmI as a model for nonribosomal peptide synthetase peptidyl carrier proteins." Proteins In Press


    Singh S, Chang A, Helmich KE, Bingman CA, Wrobel RL, Beebe ET, Makino SI, Aceti DJ, Dyer K, Hura GL, Sunkara M, Morris AJ, Phillips GN Jr, Thorson JS. "Structural and Functional Characterization of CalS11, a TDP-Rhamnose 3'-O-Methyltransferase Involved in Calicheamicin Biosynthesis." ACS Chem Biol. (2013)


    Smith DW, Han MR, Park JS, Kim KR, Yeom T, Lee JY, Kim do J, Bingman CA, Kim HJ, Jo K, Han BW, Phillips GN Jr. "Crystal structure of the protein from Arabidopsis thaliana gene At5g06450, a putative DnaQ-like exonuclease domain-containing protein with homohexameric assembly." Proteins, 81(9) (2013) : 1669-75.


    Wang F, Zhou M, Singh S, Yennamalli RM, Bingman CA, Thorson JS, Phillips GN Jr. "Crystal structure of SsfS6, the putative C-glycosyltransferase involved in SF2575 biosynthesis." Proteins, 81(7) (2013) : 1277-82.


    Bailey, L.J., Acheson, J.F., McCoy, J.G., Elsen, N.L., Phillips, G.N., Jr, Fox, B.G. "Crystallographic analysis of active site contributions to regiospecificity in the diiron enzyme toluene-4-monooxygenase." Biochemistry, 51 (2012) : 1101-1113.


    Bitto, E., Kim, D.J., Bingman, C.J., Kim, H.-J., Han, B.W., Phillips, G.N., Jr. "Crystal structure of tandem ACT domain-containing protein ACTP from Galdieria sulphuraria." Proteins, 80 (2012) : 2105-09.


    Bryden Aaron; Phillips George N. Jr.; Gleicher Michael. "Automated Illustration of Molecular Flexibility." IEEE Transactions On Visualization And Computer Graphics , 18 (2012) : 132-145.


    Daily, M.D., Phillips, G.N, Jr. and Cui, Q. "Large-scale motions in the adenylate kinase solution ensemble: coarse-grained simulations and comparison with solution x-ray scattering." Chem. Phys., 396 (2012) : 84-91.


    Bianchetti, C.A., Bingman, C.A., and Phillips, G.N., Jr. "Structure of the C-terminal Heme-binding domain of THAP-domain-containing protein 4 from Homo sapiens." Proteins, 79 (2011) : 1337-1341 .


    Bianchetti, C.M., Elsen, N.L., Fox, B.G., Phillips, G.N., Jr. "Crystal structure of cellobiose phosphorylase from Clostridium thermocellum in complex with phosphate." Acta Crystallographica F (2011) In Press


    Burgie E.S., Bingman, C.A., Grundhoefer, S.L., Soni, A., Phillips, G.N., Jr. "Structural characterization of Uch37 reveals the basis of its auto-inhibitory mechanism." Proteins (2011)


    Burgie E.S., Bingman, C.A., Phillips, G.N., Jr. "Structural architecture of Galdieria sulphuraria DCN1L." Proteins, 79 (2011) : 1329-1336 .


    Chang, A., Singh, S., Bingman, C.A., Thorson, J.S. and Phillips, G.N., Jr. "Structural characterization of CalO1: a putative orsellinic acid methyltransferase in the calicheamicin biosynthetic pathway." Acta Cyrst D , 67 (2011) : 197-203 .


    Chang, A., Singh, S., Helmich, K.E., Goff, R.D., Bingman, C.A., Thorson, J.S., Phillips, G.N., Jr. "Complete set of glycosyltransferase structures in the calicheamicin biosynthetic pathway reveals the origin of regiospecificity." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA , 108 (2011) : 17649-54.


    Chang, A., Singh, S., Phillips, G.N., Jr. Thorson, J.S. "Glycotransferase structural biology and its role in the design of catalysts for glycosylation." Current Opinion in Biotechnology (2011, in press) In Press


    Chundawat, S.P.S., Bellesia, G., Sousa, L., Gao, D., Cheh, A., Agarwal, U., Bianchetti, C.M., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Langan. P., Balan, V., Gnanakaran, S., Dale, B. "Restructuring crystalline cellulose hydrogen bond network enhances its depolymerization rate." JACS, 133 (2011) : 11163-74.


    Daily, M.D., Phillips, G.N, Jr. and Cui, Q. "Large-scale motions in the adenylate kinase solution ensemble: coarse-grained simulations and comparison with solution x-ray scattering." Chem. Phys. (2011, in press) In Press


    Daily, M.D., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Cui, Q. "Interconversion of functional motions between mesophilic and thermophilic adenylate kinases." PLoS Computational Biology , 7 (2011)


    Gonzales-Vigil, E., Bianchetti, C.M., Phillips, G.N., Jr., and Howe, G.A. "Adaptive evolution of threonine deaminase in plant defense against insect herbivores." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. , 108 (2011) : 5897-5902 .


    Han, B.W., Malone, T.E., Kim, D.J., Bingman, C.A., Kim, H.-J., Fox, B.G., Phillips, G.N., Jr. "Crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana 12-oxophytodienoate reductase isoform 3 in complex with 8-iso prostaglandin A1." Proteins, 79 (2011) : 3236-41 .


    Moretti, R., Chang, A., Peltier-Pain, P., Bingman, C.A., Phillips, G.N., Jr. Thorson, JS. "Expanding the nucleotide and sugar-1-phosphate promiscuity of nucleotidyltransferase RmlA via directed evolution." J. Biol. Chem. , 286 (2011) : 13235-13243.


    Singh, S., Chang, A., Goff, R., Bingman, C.A., Gruschow, S., Sherman, D.A., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Thorson, J. "Structural characterization of the mitomycin 7-O-methyltransferase, MmcR. ." Proteins (2011, in press) In Press

     Book chapters

    Phillips, G.N., Jr., Onuchic, J.N. "Preface to Special Topic on Protein Dynamics: Beyond Static Snapshots in Structural Biology." Structural Dynamics , 3:011901


    Daily MD, Yu H, Phillips GN Jr, Cui Q. "Allosteric activation transitions in enzymes and biomolecular motors: insights from atomistic and coarse-grained simulations." Top Curr Chem., 337 (2013) : 139-64.


    Ragsdale SW, Yi L, Bender G, Gupta N, Kung Y, Yan L, Stich TA, Doukov T, Leichert L, Jenkins PM, Bianchetti CM, George SJ, Cramer SP, Britt RD, Jakob U, Martens JR, Phillips GN, Drennan CL. "Redox, haem and CO in enzymatic catalysis and regulation." Biochem. Soc. Trans. , 40 (2012) : 501-507.


    Singh, S., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Thorson, J.S. "The structural biology of enzymes involved in natural product glycosylation." Natural Products Reports, 29 (2012) : 1201-37.


    Abbamonte, P. et al. New Science Opportunities Enabled by LCLS-II X-ray Lasers, Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory, SLAC-R-1053, May, 2015

     Invited Talks

    "Dynamics of Proteins in Crystals." Center for Theoretical Biophysics, Rice University, Houston, Texas. (9/4/17)


    "Dynamics of Proteins-The Next Structural Biology Challenge." LCLS-II HE Workshop, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California. (10/31/17)


    "General Principles of Protein Diffuse Scattering with Some Examples." National Synchrotron Light Source II Workshop on Diffuse X-ray Scattering, Brookhaven, NY. (5/15/17)


    "Past and Future Uses of Raw X-ray Diffraction Data." International Union of Crystallography General Congress, Hyderabad, India. (8/24/17)


    "Bringing Images of Proteins into Focus." Computation and Informatics in Biology and Medicine Retreat, Madison, WI. (10/7/16)


    Structure-Function Relationships in Enzymes of Natural Product Biosynthesis: Routes to New Compounds, University of Virgina, Charlottesville, VA, May 4, 2015


    Peering into the world of atoms and molecules, Rice Science Café, Houston, TX, May 5, 2015


    "Dynamics of Proteins in Crystals." Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ. (February 21, 2013)


    "Enzyme Discovery for Natural Product Biosynthesis." University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX. (November 11, 2013)


    "Please hold still so I can take your picture! Ensembles of protein structures." University of Wisconsin-Madison, (November 4, 2013)


    "Characterization of Cellulose Deconstruction Enzymes by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering and X-ray Diffraction." DOE Genome Sciences Program, PI/Contractors Conference, Bethesda, MD. (February 27, 2012)


    "Characterization of cellulose III produced by pretreatment with ammonia." BESC Chracterization Workshop, Riverside, CA. (January 6, 2012)


    "Dynamics of proteins and their connections to function." Duke University, Dept. of Biochemistry, Durham, NC. (February 3, 2012)


    "Calcium Specificity and the Regulation of Muscle Construction." University of Wisconsin, Madiscon, Wisconsin. (December 7, 1999)


    "Industry Sponsorship: Why Does the Pied Piper Pipe?." Conference on Research Integrity: A Professional, Ethical, and Social Obligation, University of Texas at Houston Health Science Center. (March 12, 1999)


    "Reengineering Myoglobin: Teaching an Old Dog New Tricks." University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. (April 12, 1999)


    "Reengineering Myoglobin: Teaching an Old Dog New Tricks." University of Houston, Houston, Texas. (November 10, 1999)


    "Structure, Dynamics, and Reengineering of Myoglobin." Structural Biology Symposium, Sealy Center for Structural Biology, Galveston, Texas. (March 20, 1999)


    "The Rv2416c gene of Mtb encodes the Eis protein that enhances intracellular survival of the pathogen in host macrophages during infection.." Acta Cryst 70, C1685, With H Yoon, K Kim, S Suh

     Session Chair

    “Structure of Enzyme and Photoreceptor Dynamics” American Crystallographic Association Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, July 27, 2015

    Editorial Positions
     Associate Editor, Proeins. (2008 - 2014)

     Associate Editor, Structural Dynamics. ACA and AIP Publishing. (2013 - 2015)

    Supervised Theses & Dissertations
     Kate Helmich, PhD The X-ray crystallography and structural biology of enzymes involved in the development of second-generation biofuels. (2015) (Thesis Director)

     Yasmin Chebaro, PhD Sulfur metabolism of Candida albicans: Adaptation to sulfite and biofilm formation. (Thesis Committee Member)

     Xu Wang, PhD Structure-function studies of E. faecalis YybT and GshF associated with daptomycin resistance. (Thesis Committee Member)

     Pierce G Young, PhD Identifying the molecular components of pexophagy in Arabidopsis thaliana. (Thesis Committee Member)

     Premila Samuels Mohan Das, PhD Engineering recombinant myoglobins and hemoglobins for optimized globin stability. (Thesis Director)

     Jose Olmos, PhD TBD. (Thesis Director)

     Jonathan Clinger, PhD TBD. (Thesis Director)

     Yu-Yu Cheng, PhD Characterization of transcriptional delay by synthetic biology approach. (Thesis Committee Member)

     Fenbeng "Jerry" Wang, PhD Structural characterization of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of anti-tumor natural products. (Thesis Director)

     Alicia M Jones, PhD Examining how circular permutation impacts adenylate kinase activity and stability. (Thesis Committee Member)

     Lu Han, PhD Method development for natural products structure determination. (Thesis Director)

     Sarah Alvarado, PhD TBD. (Thesis Director)

    Awards, Prizes, & Fellowships
     Outstanding Faculty Associate, Lovett College, Rice University

     Fellow, American Academy for the Advancement of Science (2012)

     Member, Biophysical Society

     Member, American Association for the Advancement of Science

     Member, American Chemical Society

     Member, American Crystallographic Association

    Positions Held
     Fellow, Biophysical Society. (2015 - 2017)

     Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2012 - 2017)

     Member, Protein Society. (2015 - 2017)

     Member, American Crystallographic Association. (2015 - 2015)

     Member, American Chemical Society. (2015 - 2017)

     Fellow, American Crystallographic Association. (2014 - 2017)