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Scholarly Interest Report
         
Ed Billups
Professor Emeritus
Professor Emeritus of Chemistry
 
e-mail:billups@rice.edu
 
  • B.S. (1961) Marshall University, Huntington, WV
  • M.S. (1965) Marshall University, Huntington, WV
  • Ph.D. (1970) Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
 
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Department Affiliations
 
  • Department of Chemistry
  • Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology
  •  
    Websites
     Ed Billups Research Group
     Billups Research Group
     

    Billups Research Statement 2010

     

    Dr. Billups' early research interests included the synthesis of new molecular systems of theoretical interest.  A major focus involved the development of a vacuum gas phase procedure for the synthesis of small ring cycloalkenes using reagents adsorbed on inert surfaces to affect elimination reactions. This approach allows the reactive species to be isolated at low temperature, and eliminates many of the undesired bimolecular side reactions that would normally be encountered in solution. Energetic compounds can thus be collected readily in cold traps for further chemical studies or spectral characterization. X-ray structural parameters of unstable low melting compounds were secured in collaboration with Dr. Roland Boese in Essen, Germany. Representative molecules whose syntheses have been accomplished include methylenecyclopropene, spiropentadiene, and spiroheptatriene. 3,3’-Bicyclopropenyl, the last (CH6) isomer benzene, was first made only in 1989 and characterized by X-Ray crystallography in the Boese laboratory.  Collaborative work with Boese and an industrial sponsor led to the nucleation, growth, and structure of gas hydrates by X-Ray crystallography.  Gas hydrates cause serious problems in long distance natural gas pipelines.



    A second area involved studies on the activation of carbon-hydrogen bonds by first row transition metals. For example, photoexcited cobalt atoms were found to insert into the carbon-hydrogen bonds of methane to yield CH3CoH. This same species can be microsynthesized and characterized using FTIR spectroscopy by cocondensing the metal with CH2N2, H2, and argon at 11 K.  Photolysis of CH3CoH using 400 nm light leads to extrusion of the metal with the formation of the spectroscopically detectable Co(CH4) σ-complex 2 shown to have C3v symmetry.  Photolysis of this complex using a UV source regenerates the insertion product CH3CoH. Deuterium labeling studies have shown that the methane rotates freely on the cobalt.  These studies were carried out in collaboration with the late Professor John Margrave.


      



    Current studies in the area of carbon nanomaterials have focused on the development of routes to soluble carbon nanotubes and graphene.  Reductive alkylation reactions that give nearly complete exfoliation of these materials have been developed. Application of these reactions to coal has allowed us to synthesize soluble coal nanoplatelets (liquid coal).  This chemistry is described in the publications listed below.




     
    Selected Publications
     Abstracts
     

    R. Allada, P. Moloney, M. Anderson, F. Smith, S. Arepalli, L. Yowell, "Nanoscale Materials for Human Spaceflight Applications: Regenerable Carbon Dioxide Removal Using Single-wall Carbon Nanotubes." Preceedings of 36th International Conference on Environmental Systems (2006)

     
     Refereed articles
     

    E. Vishnyakova, B. E. Brinson, L. B. Alemany, M. Verma, W. E. Billups, Structural Characterization and properties of a New Graphitic-Based Material. Chem. Eur. J. 2016, 22, 1452-1460.

     
     

    L. B. Alemany, M. Verma, W. E. Billups, S. L. Wellington, and M. Shammai, “Solid- and Solution-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analyses of Ecuadorian Asphaltenes: Quantitative Solid-State Aromaticity Determination Supporting the “Island” Structural Model. Aliphatic Structural Information from Solution-State 1H–13C Heteronuclear Single-Quantum Coherence Experiments.” Energy Fuels, 29 2015: 6317–6329.

     
     

    S. C. Fritz, B. E. Brinson, W. E. Billups and L. G. Thompson, “Diatoms at >5000 Meters in the Quelccaya Summit Dome Glacier, Peru”. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 47 2015: 149-154.

     
     

    S. Ghosh, F. Wei, S. M. Bachilo, R. H. Hauge, W. E. Billups, and R. B. Weisman, “Structure-Dependent Thermal Defunctionalization of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.” ACS Nano, 9 2015: 6324–6332.

     
     

    S. C. Fritz, B. E. Brinson, W. E. Billups and Lonnie G. Thompson "Diatoms at >5000 Meters in the Quelccaya Summit Dome Glacier," Peru: Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, accepted for publication.

     
     

    Y. Sun, A. G. Kvashnin, P. B. Sorokin, B.I. Yakobson, and W. E. Billups, "Radiation-Induced Nucleation of diamond from Amorphous Carbon:  Effect of Hydrogen," Journal Physical Chemistry Letters, 5 2014: 1924-1928.  

     
     

    A. C. Ford, M. C. Shaughnessy-Culver, B. M. Wong, O. V. Kuznetsov, A. Kane, K. L. Krafcik, W. E. Billups, R. H. Hauge, F. Léonard "Physical removal of metallic carbon nanotubes from nanotube network devices using a thermal and fluidic process." Nanotechnol., 24 (2013) : 105202-1:105202-8.

     
     

    K. F. Kelly, W. E. Billups "Synthesis of water soluble graphite and graphene." Acc. Chem. Res., 46 (2013) : 4-13.

     
     

    S. Acharya, J. Alvarado, D. Banerjee, W. E. Billups, G. Chen, B. A. Cola, W. Cross, E. Duke, S. Graham, Jr., H. He, H. Hong, S. Jin, S. Karna, C. Li, C. H. Li, J. Li, G. P. Peterson, J. A. Puszynski, J. Routbort, J. Shan, D. Shin, A. Smirnova, P. Smith, X. Wang, A. Waynick, R. White, X. Yan, and W. Yu "Report on Carbon and Nano Material Workshop: Challenges and Opportunities." Nanoscale Microscale Thermophys. Eng., 17 (2013) : 10-24.

     
     

    S. J. Corr, M. Raoof, B. T. Cisneros, O. Kuznetsov, K. Massey, W. D. Kaluarachchi, M. A. Cheney, W. E. Billups, L. J. Wilson, S. A. Curley "Variant cellular internalization behaviour of water-soluble sulphonated nano-graphene sheets in liver cancer cells." Nanoscale Res. Lett., 8 (2013) : 208.In Press

     
     

    O. Kuznetsov, Y. Sun, R. Thaner, A. Bratt, V. Shenoy, M. S. Wong, J. Jones and W. E. Billups "Water Soluble Nano Diamond." Langmuir, 28 (2012) : 5243-5248 .

     
     

    Z. Yang, Y. Sun, L. B. Alemany, T. N. Narayanan, W. E. Billups "Birch reduction of graphite. Edge and Interior functionalization by hydrogen." J. Am. Chem. Soc., 134 (2012) : 18689-18694.

     
     

    A. Kumar, A. L. M. Reddy, A. Mukherjee, M. Dubey, X. Zhan, N. Singh, L. Ci. W. E. Billups, J. Nagurny, G. Mital, P. M. Ajayan "Direct Synthesis of Lithium-Intercalated Graphene for Electrochemical Energy Storage Application." ACS Nano, 5 (2011) : 4345-4349.

     
     

    A. Mukherjee, J. Kang, O. Kuznetsov, R. Thaner, A. S. Bratt, J. R. Lomeda, K. F. Kelly, and W. E. Billups "Water Soluble Graphite Nanoplatelets Formed by Oleum Exfoliation of Graphite." Chem. Mater., 23 (2011) : 9-13.

     
     

    S. J. Corr, M. Raoof, O. Kuznetsov, K. Massey, W. D. Kaluarachchil, M. Cheney, W. E. Billups, L. J. Wilson, and S. A. Curley "Folding and Compartmentalization of Water-Soluble Graphene Within Liver Cancer Cells." Submitted

     
     

    Y. Sun, A. Mukherjee, O. Kuznetsov, R. Thaner, L. B. Alemany and W. E. Billups "Functionalization by Reductive Alkylation and Mapping of a Subbituminous Coal by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy." Energy Fuels, 25 (2011) : 1571-1577.

     
     

    Y. Sun, L. B. Alemany, W. E. Billups, J. Lu, B. I. Yakobson "Structural Dislocations in Anthracite." J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2 (2011) : 2521-2524.

     
     

    Y. Sun, O. Kuznetsov, L. B. Alemany, W. E. Billups "Reductive Alkylation of Anthracite: Edge Functionalization." Energy Fuels, 25 (2011) : 3997-4005.

     
     

    V. C. Moore, L. A. McJilton, S. T. Pheasant, C. Kittrell, R. E. Anderson, D. Ogrin, F. Liang, R. H. Hauge, H. J. Schmidt, J M. Tour, W. E. Billups, A. R. Barron, and R. E. Smalley "Controlled attachment of metal nanoparticles to single walled carbon nanotubes as a key step in their seeded growth and lengthening." Carbon, 48 (2010) : 561-565.

     
     

    Y. J. Zhang, Y. X. Wang, W. E. Billups, H. B. Liu and J. H. Yang "Ordered magnetic multilayer nanobowl array by nanosphere template method." Solid State Commun., 150 (2010) : 2357-2361.

     
     

    A. Mukherjee, L. B. Alemany, R. Thaner, W. H. Guo and W. E. Billups "Soluble Activated Charcoal." Carbon, 47 (2009) : 3145-3150.

     
     

    J. Chattopadhyay, A. Mukherjee, S. Chakraborty, J. Kang, P. J. Loos. K. F. Kelly, H. K. Schmidt, and W. E. Billups "Exfoliated Soluble Graphite." Carbon, 47 (2009) : 2945-2949.

     
     

    L. McJilton, C. Horton, C. Kittrell, D. Ogrin, H. Peng, F. Liang, W. E. Billups, H. K. Schmidt, R. H. Hauge, R. E. Smalley, and A. R. Barron "Nebulization of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes for Respiratory Toxicity Studies." Carbon, 47 (2009) : 2528-2530.

     
     

    O. V. Ogloblya, Y. M. Strzhemechby, G. M. Kuznetsova, Yu. I. Prylutskyy, and W. E. Billups "Linear polarizability of carbon nanotubes bonded to malemide derivative and fluorescent probe Nile red." Computational Materials Science, 46 (2009) : 112-114.

     
     

    A. Mukherjee, L. B. Alemany, J. Chattopadhyay, S. Chakraborty, W. Guo, S. M. Yates and W. E. Billups "Dodecylated Large Fullerenes: An Unusual Class of Solids." Chem Mater., 20 (2008) : 5513.

     
     

    A. Mukherjee, R. Combs, J. Chattopadhyay, D. W. Abmayr, P. S. Engel and W. E. Billups "Attachment of Nitrogen and Oxygen Centered Radicals to Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Salts." Chem. Mater., 20 (2008) : 7339.

     
     

    B. Glover, K. Whites, H. Hong, A. Mukerjee, W. E. Billups "Effective Electrical Conductivity of Functional Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes in Aqueous Fluids." Synth. Met., 158 (2008) : 506-508.

     
     

    C. Ni, J. Chattopadhyay, W. E. Billups, and P. R. Bandaru "Modification of the Electrical Characteristics of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Through Selective Functionalization." Appl. Phys. Lett., 93 (2008) : 243113.

     
     

    J. Chattopadhyay, C. Hamilton, A. Mukherjee, S. Chakraborty, W. Guo, A. R. Barron, and W. E. Billups "Graphite Epoxide." J. Am. Chem. Soc., 130 (2008) : 5414.

     
     

    P. S. Engel, W. E. Billups, D. W. Abmayr, K. Tsvaygboym, and R. Wang "The Reaction of Carbon Nanotubes with Organic Peroxides." J. Phys. Chem. C, 112 (2008) : 695-700.

     
     

    S. Chakraborty, W. Guo, R. H. Hauge, and W. E. Billups "Reductive Alkylation of Fluorinated Graphite." Chem. Mater., 20 (2008) : 3134.

     
     

    D. Ogrin, R.E. Anderson, R. Colorado, Jr., B. Maruyama, M.J. Pender, V.C. Moore, S.T. Pheasant, L. McJilton, H.K. Schmidt, R.H Hauge, W.E. Billups, J.M. Tour, R.E. Smalley, and A.R. Barron "Amplification of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes from Designed Seeds: Separation of Nucleation and Growth." J. Phys. Chem. C, 111 (2007) : 17804.

     
     

    H. Hong, J. Wensel, F. Liang, W.E. Billups, and W. Roy "Heat Transfer Nanofluids Based on Carbon Nanotubes." J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 21 (2007) : 234.

     
     

    J. Chattopadhyay, S. Chakraborty, A. Mukherjee, R. Want, P.S. Engel, and W.E. Billups "SET Mechanism in the Functionalization of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes." J. Phys. Chem. C, 111 (2007) : 17928.

     
     

    J. Chattopadhyay, S. Chakraborty, J. H. Kang, P.J. Loos, K.F. Kelly, H.K. Schmidt and W. E. Billups "Exfoliated Soluble Graphite." Chem. Mater.In Press

     
     

    K.J. Ziegler, Z. Gu, F. Liang, W.E. Billups, R.H. Hauge, and R.E. Smalley "Statistically Accurate Lenght Measurements of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes." J. Nanosci. and Nanotechnol., 7, No.8 (2007) : 2917.

     
     

    M. Moniruzzaman, J. Chattopadhyay, W.E. Billups, and K.I. Winey "Tuning the Mechanical Properties of SWNT/Nylon 6,10 Composits with Flexible Spacers at the Interface." Nano Lett., 7 (2007) : 1178.

     
     

    P.K. Rai, A.N.G. Parra-Vasquez, J. Chattopadhyay, R. A. Pinnick, F. Liang, A.K. Sadana, R.H. Hauge, W.E. Billups, and M. Pasquali "Dispersions of Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Strong Acids: Solubility and Rheology." J. Nanosci. and Nanotech., 7, No. 10 (2007) : 3378.

     
     

    S. Chakroborty, J. Chattopadhyay, W. Guo, and W.E. Billups "Functionalization of Potassium Graphite." Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 46 (2007) : 4486.

     
     

    S. Ramesh, H. Shan, E. Haroz, W.E. Billups, R. Hauge, W.W. Adams, R.E. Smalley "Diameter Selection of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes Through Programmable Solvation in Binary Sulfonic Acid Mixtures." J. Phys. Chem.C, 111 (2007) : 17827.

     
     

    W.E. Billups, Feng Liang, Jayanta Chattopadhyay and Jonathan Beach "Uses of Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Salts in Organic Syntheses." ECS Trans. 2, 12 (2007) : 65.

     
     

    X. Shi, B. Sitharaman, Q.P. PHam, F. Liang, K. Wu, W.E. Billups, L.J. Wilson and A.G. Mikos "Fabrication of Porous Ultra-Short Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering." Biomaterials, 28 (2007) : 4078-4090.

     
     

    C. M. Sayes, F. Liang, J. Mendez, W. Guo, J. M. Beach, V. C. Moore, J. L. Hudson, J. L. West, W. E. Billups, K. D. Ausman, and V. L. Colvin "In Vitro Cytotoxic Observations of Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes." Toxicology Letters, 161 (2006) : 135-142.

     
     

    Douglas Ogrin, Jayanta Chattopadhyay, Anil K. Sadana, W. Edward Billups, and Andrew R. Barron "Epoxidation and Deoxygenation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Quantification of Epoxide Defects." J. Am. Chem. Soc., 128(35) (2006) : 11322-11323.

     
     

    F. Liang, J. M. Beach, P. K. Rai, W. Guo, R. H. Hauge, M. Pasquali, R. E. Smalley, and W. E. Billups "Highly Exfoliated Water-Soluble Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes." Chemistry of Materials, 18(6) (2006) : 1520-1524.

     
     

    Feng Liang, Jonathan M. Beach, Yadira I. Vega-Cantu, Anil K. Sadana, Jayanta Chattopadyay, Kazufumi Kobashi, James M. Tour and W. E. Billups "In-Situ Polymerization by Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Salts." Chemistry of Materials, 18(20) (2006) : 4764-4767.

     
     

    K. J. Ziegler, Z. Gu, F. Liang, W. E. Billups, R. H. Hauge, and R. E. Smalley "Statistically Accurate Length Measurements of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes." J. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 110 (2006) : 11624.

     
     

    Y. I. Vega-Cantu, R. H. Hauge, L. R. Norman, R. J. Powell, and W. E. Billups "Effect of Magnesium and Iron on the Hydration and Hydrolysis of Guar Gum." Biomacromolecules, 7 (2006) : 441-445.

     
     

    A. K. Sadana, F. Liang, B. Brinson, S. Arepalli, S. Farhat, R. H. Hauge, R. E. Smalley, and W. E. Billups "Functionalization and Extraction of Large Fullerenes and Carbon Coated Metal Formed during the Synthesis of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes by Laser Oven, DC Arc and HiPco Production Methods." J. Phys. Chem. B, 109 (2005) : 4416-4418.

     
     

    A. V. Talyzin, Y. O. Tsybin, A. A. Peera, T. M. Schaub, A. G. Marshall, B. Sundqvist, P. Mauron, A. Zuettel, and W. E. Billups "Synthesis of C59Hx and C58Hx Fullerenes Stabilized by Hydrogen." J. Phys. Chem. B, 109 (2005) : 5403-5405.

     
     

    F. Liang, L. B. Alemany, J. M. Beach, and W. E. Billups "Structure Analyses of Dodecylated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes." J. Am. Chem. Soc., 127 (2005) : 13941-13948.

     
     

    J. Chattopadhyay, A. K. Sadana, F. Liang, J. M. Beach, Y. Xiao, R. H. Hauge, and W. E. Billups "Carbon Nanotube Salts. Arylation of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes." Organic Letters, 7 (2005) : 4067-4069.

     
     

    R. L. Carver, H. Peng, A. K. Sadana, P. Nikolaev, S. Arepalli, C. D. Scott, W. E. Billups, R. H. Hauge, and R. E. Smalley "A Model for Nucleation and Growth of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes via the HiPco Process: A Catalyst Concentration Study." Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 5 (2005) : 1035-1040.

     
     

    Z. Gu, F. Liang, Z. Chen, A. K. Sadana, C. Kittrell, W. E. Billups, R. H. Hauge, and R. E. Smalley "In Situ Raman Studies on Lithiated Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes in Liquid Ammonia." Chem. Phys. Lett., 410 (2005) : 467-470.

     
     

    A. A. Peera, L. B. Alemany, and W. E. Billups "Hydrogen Storage in Hydrofullerides." Appl. Phys. A, 78 (2004) : 995-1000.

     
     

    A. V. Talyzin, B. Sundqvist, Y. M. Shulga, A. A. Peera, P. Imus, and W. E. Billups "Gentle Fragmentation of C60 by Strong Hydrogenation: A Route to Synthesizing new Materials." Chem. Phys. Lett, 400 (2004) : 112-116.

     
     

    F. Liang, A. K. Sadana, A. Peera, J. Chattopadhyay, Z. Gu, R. H. Hauge, and W. E. Billups "A Convenient Route to Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes." Nano Letters, 4 (2004) : 1257-1260.

     
     

    L. M. Ericson, H, Fan, H. Peng, V. A. Davis, W. Zhou, J. Sulpizio, Y. Wang, R. Booker, J. Vavro, C. Guthy, A. N. G. Parra-Vasquez, Kim, M. J. Ramesh, R. K. Saini, C. Kittrell, G. Lavin, H. Schmidt, W. W. Adams, W. E. Billups, M. Pasquali, W-F. Hwang, R. H. Hauge, J. E. Fisher, and R. E. Smalley "Macroscopic Neat Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Fibers." Science, 306 (2004) : 1447-1450.

     
     

    M. T. Kirchner, R. Boese, and W. E. Billups and L. R. Norman "Gas Hydrate Single Crystal Structure Analyses." J. Am. Chem. Soc., 126 (2004) : 9407-9412.

     
     

    S. Ramesh, L.M. Ericson, V.A. Davis, R. K. Saini, C. Kittrell, M. Pasquali, W. E. Billups, W. W. Adams, R. H. Hauge, and R. E. Smalley "Dissolution by Direct Protonation and Nematization of Pristine Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Superacids." J. Phys. Chem. B, 108(26) (2004) : 8794-8798.

     
     

    V. A. Davis, L. M. Ericson, A. N. G. Parra-Vasquez, S. Ramesh, R. K. Saini, C. Kittrell, W. E. Billups, W. W. Adams, R. H. Hauge, R. E. Smalley and M. Pasquali "Phase Behavior and Rheology of SWNTs in Superacids." Macromolecules, 37 (2004) : 154-160.

     
     

    A. Peera, R. K. Saini, L. B. Alemany, W.E. Billups, M. Saunders, A. Khong, M.S. Syamala and R. J. Cross "Formation, Isolation and Spectroscopic Properties of Some Isomers of C60H38, C60H40, C60H42 and C60H44. ....." Eur. J. Org. Chem (2003) : 4140-4145.

     
     

    Anil K. Sadana, Rajesh K. Saini and W. E. Billups "Cyclobutarenes and Related Compounds." Chemical Reviews, 103 (2003) : 1539-1602.

     
     

    R. Boese, M. T. Kirchner, W. E. Billups and L. R. Norman "Co-Crystallization with Acetylene: Molecular Complexes with Acetone and Dimethyl Sulfoxide." Angew. Chem. Inter. Ed., 42 (2003) : 1961-1963.

     
     

    Rajesh K. Saini, Ivana W. Chiang, Haiqing Peng, R. E. Smalley, W. E. Billups, Robert H. Hauge and John L. Margrave "Covalent Sidewall Functionalization of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes." J. Am. Chem. Soc., 125 (2003) : 3617-3621.

     
     

    S. Ramesh, B. Brinson, M. P. Johnson, Z. Gu, R. K. Saini, P. Willis, T. Marriott, W. E. Billups, J. L. Margrave, Robert H. Hauge and R. E. Smalley "Identification of Large Fullerenes Formed During the Growth of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes in the HiPco Process." J. Phys. Chem. B, 107 (2003) : 1360-1365.

     
     

    Yadira Vega-Cantu, Robert H. Hauge, Lewis Norman and W. E. Billups "Studies of ZnBr2 Catalyzed Chemical Effects in Poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene)." J. Appl. Poly. Sci, 89 (2003) : 1250-1257.

     
     

    Yadira Vega-Cantu, Robert H. Hauge, Lewis Norman, W. E. Billups "Enhancement of the Chemical Resistance of Nitrile Rubber by Direct Fluorination." J. Appl. Poly. Sci, 89 (2003) : 971-979.

     
     

    Yunming Ying, Rajesh K. Saini, Feng Liang, Anil K. Sadana, and W.E. Billups "Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes by Free Radicals." Organic Letters, 5(9) (2003) : 1471-1473.

     
     

    Billups, W., Holger F. Bettinger, Angela D. Rabuck, and Gustavo E. Scuseria "Thermolysis of C60H2." Chemical Physics Letters, 360 (2002) : 509-514.

     
     

    Billups, W., Rajesh K. Saini, Vladislav A. Litosh, Bill Wilson, Lawrence B. Alemany, and Kenneth B. Wiberg "Thermal Rearrangements of Spiro[2.4]hepta-1,4,6-trienes." Journal of Organic Chemistry, 67 (2002) : 4436-4440.

     
     Articles
     

    W. E. Billups "Fullerenes: Principles and Applications." J. Am. Chem. Soc., 130 (2008)

     
     Books
     

    Rajesh K. Saini and W. E. Billups "Houben-Weyl Methods of Molecular Transformations, Science of Synthesis." 

     
     Book chapters
     

    Luann Becker, Robert J. Poreda, Joseph A. Nuth, Frank T. Ferguson, Feng Liang, and W. Edward Billups "Fullerenes in Meteorites and the Nature of Planetary Atmospheres." Natural Fullerenes and Related Structures of Elemental Carbon (2006) : 95-118.

     
     

    Luann Becker, Robert J. Poreda, Joseph A. Nuth, Frank T. Ferguson, Feng Liang, and W. Edward Billups "Future Procedures for Isolation of Higher Fullerenes in Natural and Synthetic Soot." Natural Fullerenes and Related Structures of Elemental Carbon (2006) : 279-295.

     
     

    W. E. Billups "Fullerenes." Chemistry: Foundation and Applications, 4 (2004) : 2:128-138.

     
     Book reviews
     

    W.E. Billups "Fullerenes: Principles and Applications." J. Am. Chem. Soc., 129 (2007)

     
     

    W. E. Billups "Carbon-Rich Compounds: From Molecules to Materials." J. Am. Chem. Soc., 128(35) (2006) : 14207-14208.

     
     

    W. E. Billups "Fullerenes: Chemistry and Reactions." J. Am. Chem. Soc., 127 (2005) : 11876-11878.

     
     Conference papers
     

    Ramesh, S.; Ericson, L. M.; Sulpizio, J.; Saini, R. K.; Billups W. E.; Hauge, R. H.; Adams, W.; Smalley R. E. "Molecular Controls on the Inter tubular Interactiions of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes Solubilized in Superacids." Bulletin of the American Physical Society, 189 (2003) : 48(1).

     
     Other
     

    Billups, W., R. Boese, M. T. Kirchner, and L. R. Norman "Gas Hydrate Single Crystal Structure Analysis." Journal of the American Chemical Society

     
     

    Billups, W., Yunming Ying, Rajesh K. Saini, Feng Liang, John L. Margrave, and Robert Hauge "Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes by Free Radicals." Science

     
     

    Jamie Nossal, Rajesh K. Saini, Anil K. Sadana, Holger F. Bettinger, Lawrence B. Alemany, Gustavo E. Scuseria,W. E. Billups, Martin Saunders, Anthony Khong, and Ruediger Weisemann "Formation, Isolation, Spectroscopic Properties, and Calculated Properties of Some Isomers of C60H36.." J. Am. Chem. Soc., 123 (2001) : 8482-8495.

     
     

    Jamie Nossal, Rajesh K. Saini, Lawrence B. Alemany, Mark Meier, and W. E. Billups. "Synthesis and Characterization of Fullerene Hydrides." Eur. Jour. Org. Chem. (2001) : 4167-4180.

     
     

    Roland Boese, Dieter Blaser, W. E. Billups, and Michael H. Haley "X-ray Crystal Structure of Methylenecyclopropane and Vinylidenecyclopropane." J. Org. Chem. (to be submitted)

     
     

    Vladislav A. Litosh, Rajesh K. Saini, Ilsa Y. Guzman-Jimenez, Kenton H. Whitmire, and W. E. Billups "Reactions of Cycloproparenes with Metal Carbenes." Organic Letters, 3 (2001) : 65-66.

     
     

    C. Judith Chu, H. Zakya, John L. Margrave, Robert H. Hauge, and W.E. Billups. "Matrix-Isolation Studies of the Reactions of Ground and Excited-State Atomic Iron with Cyclopropane." Organometallics, 19 (2000) : 39-48.

     
     

    Kevin D. Ausman, Michael J. O'Connell, Peter Boul, Lars. M Ericson, Michael J. Casavant, Deron A. Walters, Chad Huffman, Rajesh K. Saini, Yuhuang Wang, Erik Haroz, Edward. W. Billups and Richard E. Smalley. "Roping and Wrapping Carbon Nanotubes." Proceedings of XVth International Winterschool on Electronic Properties of Novel Materials Euroconference (2000)

     
     

    Review: W.E. Billups "Separation of Fullerenes by Liquid Chromatogtaphy, edited by Kiyokatsu Jinno (Toyohashi University of Technology)." J. Am. Chem. Soc, 122 (2000) : 3984.

     
     

    S.M. Bachilo, A.F. Benedetto, S.M.Bachilo, R.B.Weisman, J.R. Nossal, W.E. Billups. "Time-resolved thermally-activated delayed fluorescence in C70 and 1,2-C70H2.." J. Phys. Chem. A, 104(48) (2000) : 11265-11269.

     
     

    C. Judith Chu, Zakya H. kafafi, John L. Margrave, Robert H. Hauge, and W. E. Billups "Matarix-Isolation Studies of the Reactions of Ground and Excited State Atomic Iron with Cyclopropane." Organometallics, 103 (1999) : 10842-10845..

     
     

    Rajesh K. Saini, Valdislav A. Litosh, Andrew D. Daniels, and W. E. Billups "Synthesis and Characterization of 1,4-Dichlorospiropentadiene." Tetrahron Letters, 40 (1999) : 6157-6158.

     
     

    W. E. Billups, Sou-Chan Chang, Robert H. Hauge, and John L. Margrave "Reactions of Atomic Manganese with CH2N2 in Solid Argon at 12K." Organometallics, 18 (1999) : 3551-3553.

     
     

    W. E. Billups, Vladislav A. Litosh, Rajesh K. Saini, Andrew D. Daniels "Synthesis of Oxaspiropentene." Organic Letters, 1 (1999) : 115.

     
     

    W. E. Billups, Weimei Luo, and R. Wagner "Synthesis of [2,2]Paracyclophane Annelated Cycloproparenes." Tetrahedron, 55 (1999) : 10893-10898.

     
     

    A. N. Kurtz, W. E. Billups, and M. L. Farmer "1,3-Diaminoalkanes." U.S.P. (1972)

     
     

    W. E. Billups, J. H. Cross, and C. V. Smith "A Synthesis of Grandisol." J. Am. Chem. Soc., 95 (1973) : 3438.

     
     

    W. E. Billups, K. H. Leavell, W. Y. Chow, and E. S. Lewis "Synthesis and Pyrolytic Transformations of 7-methylenebicyclo[4.1.0]hept-2-ene and Bicyclo[6.1.0]nona-1,6-diene." J. Am. Chem. Soc., 74 (1972) : 1770.

     
     

    W. E. Billups, L. P. Lin, and O. A. Gansow "Dimethylene(2-propenylidene)-methanetricarbonyliron." Angew. Chem. Inter. Edit., 11 (1972) : 637.

     
     

    W. E. Billups, T. C. Shields, W. Y. Chow, and N. C. Deno "Vinylalkylidenecyclo-propanes from gem-Dichlorocyclopropanes by HCl Eliminations." J. Org. Chem., 37 (1972) : 3676.

     
    Presentations
     Invited Talks
     

    "Helen Schectman Memorial Lecture." Hunter College, (May 1, 2015)

     
     

    W. E. Billups and Zhiqiang Yang, "Birch Reduction of Graphite: Edge and Interior Functionalization by Hydrogen," 245th ACS National Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 7—11, 2013.

     
     

    "Carbon Nanomaterials." Carbon Nanomaterials and Applications Workshop, Rapid City, South Dakota. (October 30, 2012)

     
     

    "Synthesis of Soluble Carbon Nanomaterials." Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei City, Taiwan. (September 24, 2012)

     
     

    "Synthesis of Soluble Carbon Nanomaterials." Department of Chemistry, Fu-jen Catholic University, Taipei City, Taiwan. (September 25, 2012)

     
     

    "Synthesis of Soluble Graphene." 221st Spring Meeting of The Electrochemical Society, Seattle, Washington. (May, 2012) With A. Mukherjee, Y. Sun, O. Kuznetsov

     
     

    "Chemistry of Carbon Nanomaterials." NASA-Rice Nano Forum, Houston, Texas. (May, 2010)

     
     

    "Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes." ChemOnTubes 2008 International Meeting, Zaragoza, Spain. (April 6, 2008) With F. Liang, J. Chattopadhyay, S. Chakraborty, J. Beach and A. Mukherjee

     
     

    "New Concepts in Nanocoal and Graphene Fuels." Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. (August 3, 2007)

     
     

    "Uses of Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Salts in Organic Syntheses." 209th Spring Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, Denver, Colorado. (May 7-11, 2006)

     
     

    "Uses of Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Salts in Syntheses." 232nd National Meeting of The American Chemical Society, San Francisco, California. (September 10-13, 2006)

     
     

    Speaker.  "Uses of Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Salts in Organic Syntheses." Marshall University, Huntington, WV. (10/18/05)

     
     

    Speaker.  "Uses of Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Salts in Organic Syntheses." American Chemical Society, San Diego, CA. (March 2005)

     
     Lectures
     

    "Carbon Nanomaterials." Carbon Nanomaterials and Applications Workshop, Rapid City, South Dakota. (October 30, 2011)

     
     Other
     

    Co-Author.  "Epoxidation and Deoxygenation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Quantification of Epoxide Defects." American Chemical Society, Atlanta, Georgia. (March 2006) With Douglas Ogrin, Jayanta Chattopadhyay, Anil K. Sadana, Andrew R. Barron

     
     

    Co-Author.  "Fabrication and Characterization of Polyamide Nanocomposites Using Functionalized Nanotubes." 2006 APS March Meeting, Baltimore, MD. (March 13-17, 2006) With Karen I. Winey, M. Moniruzzaman, University of Pennsylvania, J. Chattopadhyay, Rice University.

     
     

    Co-Author.  "Heat Transfer Nanofluids Based on Carbon Nanotubes." 9th AIAA/ASME Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, San Francisco, CA. (June 5-8, 2006) With Haiping Hong and Jesse Wensel, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota , W.E. Billups Rice University, Houston, TX , Walter Roy, Army Research Lab, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

     
     

    Co-Author.  "Investigation of Fluorinated and Hydrogenated Carbon Nanotubes by STM." 2006 APS March Meeting, Baltimore, Maryland. (March 13-17, 2006) With Dharmpal Takhar, Z. Gu, A. A. Peera, J. L. Margrave, K. F. Kelly.

     
     

    Co-Author.  "Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Regenerable Carbon Dioxide Removal in Space Environments." 36th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Norfolk, Virginia. (July 2006) With Rama Kumar Allada, NASA Johnson Space Center/ORAU, Jayanta Chattopadhyay, Rice University/CNST, Padraig Moloney, NASA Johnson Space Center, Kunal Shah, Rice University/CNST, Thomas Filburn, University of Hartford, Molly Anderson, NASA Johnson Space Center, Fred Smith, NASA Johnson Space Center; W. Edward Billups, Rice University/CNST, Sivaram Arepalli, NASA Johnson Space Center/ERC Inc., Leonard Yowell, NASA Johnson Space Center.

     
     

    Co-Author.  "Spectroscopy of Functionalized Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes." 2006 APS March Meeting, Baltimore, Maryland. (March 13-17, 2006) With J. Shaver, J. Kono, F. Liang, W.E. Billups, R.H. Hauge, Rice University, Houston Texas, E. Flahaut, Universite Paul Sabatier, CIRIMAT/LCMIE, Toulouse France.

     
     

    Presenter.  "Molecular Controls on the Inter tubular Interactiions of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes Solubilized in Superacids." American Physical Society, Austin TX. (March 2003) With Ramesh, S.; Ericson, L. M.; Sulpizio, J.; Saini, R. K.; Billups W. E.; Hauge, R. H.; Adams, W.; Smalley R. E.

     
     

    "Covalent Sidewall Functionalization of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes." ADC/FCT 2001 Meeting/Auburn University, Auburn, South Carolina. (August 6-10, 2001) With I. W. Chiang, R. K. Saini, E. T. Mickelson, W. E. Billups, R. H. Hauge, and J. L. Margrave

     
     

    "Covalent Sidewall Functionalization of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes." National Academy of Sciences Arthur M. Sackler Colloqia, Washington, DC. (May 18, 2001) With I. W. Chiang, R. K. Saini, E. T. Mickelson, W. E. Billups, R. H. Hauge, and J. L. Margrave

     
     

    "Enhancement of the Chemical Resistance of Nitrile Rubber to Completion Fluids by Direct Fluorination." ACS, Rubber Division, 160th Fall Technical Meeting , Cleveland, OH. (October 16 - 19, 2001) With Yadira I. Vega-Cantu, W. E. Billups, Robert Hauge

     
     

    "Fluorination, Defluorination, Derivatization and Solvation of Carbon Nanotubes." ONR Review/DURINT Kick-Off, Rice University, Houston, Texas. (July 9, 2001) With W. E. Billups, R. H. Hauge, V. N. Khabashesku, E. T. Mickelson, J. L. Zimmerman, R. K. Saini, I. W. Chiang, Z. Gu, H. Peng, and J. L. Margrave

     
     

    "Production, Characterization and Chemistry of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes." ACS Annual Meeting, Boston, MA. (May 19-20, 2001) With I. W. Chiang, R. K. Saini, B. E. Brinson, R. E. Smalley, J. L. Margrave, W. E. Billups, and R. H. Hauge

     
     

    "Ongoing research presentations." American Chemical Society Meeting , Washington, D.C.. (August 20-24, 2000) With I. W. Chiang, Rajesh K. Saini, B. E. Brinson, Richard E. Smalley, J. L. Margrave, W. E. Billups, and Robert H. Hauge

     
     

    "Production, Characterization and Chemistry of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes." ACS Annual Meeting, Boston, MA. (October 2-6, 2000) With I. W. Chiang, R. K. Saini, B. E. Brinson, R. E. Smalley, J. L. Margrave, W. E. Billups, and R. H. Hauge

     
     

    "Reactions of Cycloproparenees with Metal CArbenes." Pacifichem International Congress, Honolulu, Hawaii. (December 14-19, 2000) With V. A. Litosh, R. K. Saini, I. Y. Guzman-Jimenez, K. H. Whitmire, and W. E. Billups

     
     

    "Roping and Wrapping Carbon Nanotubes." XVth International Winterschool on Electronic Properties of Novel Materials Euroconference, Kirchberg, Tirol, Austria. (2000) With Kevin D. Ausman, Michael J. O'Connell, Peter Boul, Lars M. Ericson, Michael J. Casavant, Deron A. Walters, Chad Huffman, Rajesh K. Saini, Yuhung Wang, Eric Haroz, W. E. Billups, and Richard E. Smalley

     
     

    "Characterizatiaon of New Molecular Systems." Le Tourneau University, Longview, TX. (November 3, 1999)

     
     

    "Characterization of New Molecular Systems." Southwestern University, Georgetown, Texas. (November 2, 1999)

     
     

    "Characterization of New Molecular Systems." Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas. (November 5, 1999)

     
     

    "Synthesis of Strained Ring Compounds." 217th American Chemical Society National Meeting, Anaheim, California. (March 24, 1999) With V. A. Litosh, R. K. Saini, A. D. Daniels

     
     

    "Synthesis of Strained Ring Compounds." 217th ACS National Meeting, Anaheim, CA. (March 21-25, 1999) With V. A. Litosh, R. K. Saini, A. D. Daniels, and W. E. Billups

     
     

    "Gas Phase Synthesis of Theoretically Interesting Compounds." University of Colorado, Boulder, CO. (9 February 1998)

     
     

    "Member of International Advisory Board and discussion leader." The 9th International Symposium on Novel Aromatic Compounds, Hong Kong. (August 1998)

     
     

    "Synthesis of New Molecular Systems." Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX. (November 1998)

     
     Posters
     

    Co-Author.  "C Synthesis of Water-soluble PEGylated Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes." 232nd American Chemical Society National Meeting, San Francisco, CA. (September 10-14, 2006) With K. I. Winey, M. Moniruzzaman, University of Pennsylvania, J. Chattopadhyay, Rice University

     
     

    Presenter.  "Synthesis of Water-soluble PEGylated Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes." 62 SW Regional Meeting of the Am. Chem. Soc., Houston, TX. (October 19-22)

     
     

    Presenter.  "Synthesis of Water-soluble PEGylated Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes." Gordon Research Conference on Nanostructure Fabrication, Tilton, New Hampshire. (July 16-21, 2006)

     
     

    "Carbon Nanotube Salts. Arylation of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes." Nano Summit 2005, Houston, TX. (July 28, 2005) With J. Chattopadhyay, A. K. Sadana, F. Liang, Y. Xiao, R. H. Hauge and W. E. Billups

     
     

    "Dilute Rheology of Functionalized SWNTs (f-SWNTs) in Strong Acids." 76th Annual Meeting of the Society of Rheology, Lubbock, TX. (February 12-17, 2005) With P. K. Rai, A. N. G. Parra-Vasquez, V. A. Davis, R. A. Pinnick, A. K. Sadana, J. Chattopadhyay, F. Liang, R. H. Hauge, W. E. Billups, R. E. Smalley, and M. Pasquali

     
     

    "Phase Behaviour and Rheology of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes in Superacids." 229th ACS National Meeting, San Diego, CA. (March 13-17,2005) With A. N. G. Parra-Vasquez, V. A. Davis, V. Prieto, P. K. Rai, A. K Sadana, F. Liang, J. Chattopadhyay, W. E. Billups, R. H. Hauge, R. E. Smalley, and M. Pasquali

     
     

    "Uses of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Salts in Syntheses." 230th ACS National Meeting, Washington, D.C.. (August 28-September 1, 2005) With F. Liang, L. B. Alemany, J. M. Beach

     
    Editorial Positions
     Associate Editor, Science Advances. (2015 - 2015)

     Editor for Special Issue, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. (2012 - 2012)

     Member of the Editorial Board, Organic Chemistry International. (2012 - 2012)

     Other, Chemistry. American Chemical Society. (2002 - 2002)

    Supervised Theses & Dissertations
     Shawn M. Dirk, Ph. D. Design, Synthesis and Testing of Molecular Scale Electronic Components. (2002) (Thesis Committee Member)

     Joshua Lewis Jurs, Ph. D. Novel Flame Retardant Additives and Polymers .... (2003) (Thesis Committee Member)

     Thomas D. Welton, Ph.D. Research Towards the Total Synthesis of gamma-Rubromycin and Heliquinomycin. (2003) (Thesis Committee Member)

     Austen Flatt, Ph. D. Design, Synthesis and Testing of Novel Organic Oligomers for Use as Molecular-Scale Electronic Devices. (2005) (Thesis Committee Member)

     Hua MO, Ph. D. The Reaction of Benzylic Radicals with Quinoid Inhibitors. (2005) (Thesis Committee Member)

     Zheyi Chen, MS Cutting of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. (2006) (Thesis Committee Member)

     Feng Liang, Ph. D. Sidewall Functionalization of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. (2006) (Thesis Director)

     Yasuhiro Shirai, Ph. D. Design, Synthesis and Testing of Fullerene-Functionalized Devices and Machines. (2006) (Thesis Committee Member)

     Jason Stevenson, Ph. D. Synthesis of Flame-Retardant Polymers and the Functionalization and Use of Carbon Nanotubes for Materials Applications. (2006) (Thesis Committee Member)

     Hee Jung Part, M.S. Measurement of the Trapping Rate of Constants and Product. (2007) (Thesis Committee Member)

     Jeanne Rasbery, Ph.D Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of the Squalene Epoxidase Gene Family in Arabidopsis Thaliana. (2007) (Thesis Committee Member)

     Konstantin Tsvaygboym, Ph.D. Studies of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Ozonides and alpha-Azoxy Ketones. (2007) (Thesis Committee Member)

     Zheng Metal Coated Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Composite Applications. (2008) (Thesis Committee Member)

     Brandi Katherine Price, Ph.D. Functionalization and Biological Applications of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphite Systems. (2008) (Thesis Committee Member)

     Sasaki Understanding Nanocomponentry: The Design, Synthesis and Testing of Fullerene and Carborane-Functionalized Machines and Devices. (2008) (Thesis Committee Member)

     Jayanta Chattopadhyay, Ph.D. Chemistry of Carbon Nanomaterials: Uses of Lithium Nanotube Salts in Organic Syntheses and Functionalization of Graphite. (2008) (Thesis Director)

     Hee Jung Park, Ph.D. Measurement of the Trapping Rate Constants and Product Studies of Quinone Derivative Inhibitors with α-Phenethyl Radicals. (2009) (Thesis Committee Member)

     Liling Zeng, Ph.D. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Functionalization, Characterization and Application. (2009) (Thesis Committee Member)

     Erika Bryant, Ph.D. Functionalized Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications. (2013) (Thesis Director)

     Wei Lu, Ph.D. Synthesis of Carbon Nanomaterials and Applications in the Oilfield. (Thesis Committee Member)

     Daniela Marcano, Ph.D. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Uses of Carbon Nanoparticles. (Thesis Committee Member)

     Scott Berger, Ph.D. Toward Fullerene Immunotherapy with Water-Soluble Paclitaxel-Fullerene Conjugates. (Thesis Committee Member)

     Arnab Mukherjee, PhD Reductive Functionalization of Carbon Nanomaterials. (Thesis Director)

     Oleksandr Kuznetsov, Ph.D. Functionalization of Nanocarbons for Composite, Biomedical and Sensor Applications. (Thesis Director)

    Awards, Prizes, & Fellowships
     2003 Award of the American Chemical Society, Greater Houston Section of the American Chemical Society (2003)

     Councilor: American Chemical Society; Member: Membership Affairs Committee, American Chemical Society; Member: Alexander von Humboldt Association of America,

     Member, Membership Affairs Committee, American Chemical Society

     Councilor, American Chemical Society

     Member, Alexander von Humboldt Association of America

     Councilor, American Chemical Society (Greater Houston Section)

     Membership Affairs Committee, American Chemical Society (Washington, DC)

     Member, American Chemical Society

     Councilor, American Chemical Society

     Membership Affairs Committee, American Chemical Society

     Alexander von Humboldt Senior Scientist Award, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (1991)

     Lilly Grantee in Organic Chemistry Program, Eli Lilly and Company (1973)

     Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (1973-1975)

    Positions Held
     Councilor, American Chemical Society. (2002 - 2002)

     Member, Membership Affairs Committee of the American Chemical Society. (2002 - 2002)

     Chair, Subcommittee on Virtual Member Services of the American Chemical Socieety. (2002 - 2002)

     Member, Advisory Board for Chemistry, a publication of the American Chemical Society. (2002 - 2002)

     Member, Alexander von Humboldt Association of America. (2002 - 2002)