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Scholarly Interest Report
         
Robert Michael Raphael
Associate Professor
Associate Professor of Bioengineering
 
e-mail:rraphael@rice.edu
 
  • Ph.D. Biophysics (1996) University of Rochester, Rochester, NY
  • M.S. Biophysics (1992) University of Rochester, Rochester, NY
  • B.S. Physics (1989) University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN
 
Primary Department
   Department of Bioengineering
Picture
 
Websites
 Robert M. Raphael
 Raphael Lab Group Website
 
Research Areas
 Membrane and Cell Mechanics, Cochlear Biophysics, Electromechanical Transduction in Biological Systems, Mathematical Modeling of Biological Systems, Nanotechnology, Nonviral Gene Delivery, Confocal and Multiphoton Microscopy
 
Research Statement
 

Robert Raphael approaches scientific problems in a multidisciplinary spirit, employing both theory and experiment to understand biological processes at the fundamental level and apply this knowledge for the benefit of human health. He is currently focused on three major inter-related questions:



  • Electromechanical Transduction in Cochlear Outer Hair Cells and Soft Materials
    Cochlear outer hair cells are biological microelectromechanical systems (MEMs) that possess a unique membrane motor protein (Prestin) that generates force in response to changes in membrane potential. Damage to these cells causes many forms of hearing loss. Dr. Raphael has constructed a thermodynamic liquid crystal model of this process based on electrically-induced nanoscale curvature changes in the membrane (flexoelectricity). He is involved in a collaborative project with Baylor College of Medicine aimed at elucidating the mechanism by which Prestin operates in the membrane. This work involves modeling membrane/cytoskeletal association, tether formation with optical tweezers and developing new techniques for evaluating nanoscale membrane mechanics. The project has tremendous engineering potential because Prestin can be used in the design of synthetic MEMs made of biocompatible materials. Dr. Raphael is also interested in the prevention of degeneration of outer hair cells and cell-cell interactions in the cochlea.

  • Aspirin-Like Molecules and Membrane Mechanics
    Using the technique of micropipette aspiration, Dr. Raphael discovered that salicylate, the metabolite of aspirin, softens lipid membranes. This effect may explain side effects of aspirin ingestion not attribution to the inhibition of cyclooxygenase, such as ototoxicity. The work is being extended to other aspirin-like molecules and computational and molecular models are being developed to understand the temporal features of these effects. The project illustrates how surfactant and interfacial science are germane to bioengineering problems and how mechanochemical coupling can influence biological processes. In addition, aspirin-induced softening of cell membranes can be used as a modulator of membrane function.

  • Biophysical Factors Mediating Gene Delivery
    Viral-mediated gene delivery has many disadvantages and there is a need to develop safe and efficient nonviral methods for molecular transfer. The composition and mechanical properties of membranes determine the ability of electric fields to facilitate molecular transfer across the membrane (electroporation) and for membranes to fuse. Agents that soften the membrane such as aspirin can decrease the electroporation threshold, and research is aimed at correlating this with cell mechanical properties and developing biophysical models of the process. Another method for the delivery of agents to cells is by encapsulating them in liposomes. Dr. Raphael has designed a liposome capable of interacting with the cochlear outer hair cell, illustrating how molecular engineering of the membrane holds the promise to improve liposomal mediated delivery in tissue engineering applications.

 
Teaching Areas
 Thermodynamics, Biosystems Transport, Neuroengineering, Ethics, Foundations of Biotechnology.
Membrane Mechanics
 
Selected Publications
 Abstracts
 

Voltage Dependent Interactions of the Outer Hair Cell Motor Protein Prestin Biophysical Journal, Volume 96, Issue 3, Supplement 1, February 2009, Page 538a Ramsey Kamar, Ryan McGuire, Robert M. Raphael

 
 

Choi, Y., Maiti, S., Yuen, C., Huls, H., Raphael, R. M., Killian, T. C., Stark, D. J., Lupascu, S., Lee, D. A. , Shpall, E. J., Kebriaei, P., Champlin, R. E., Biswal, S. L., and Cooper, L. J. N. "Large Scale Generation Of Genetically Modified T-Cells Using Micro-Electroporators For Cancer Treatments, Transducers."  (2008) In Press

 
 

Yoonsu Choi, Carrie Yuen, Hillary Gibbons, Sourindra Maiti, Helen Huls, Sibani L Biswal, Robert Raphael, Thomas C Killian, Daniel J Stark, Dean A Lee, Partow Kebriaei, Richard E Champlin, and Laurence JN Cooper "High-efficient non-viral gene transfer by mRNA electroporation to generate CD19-specific T cells . .."  (2008) Submitted

 
 

Yoonsu Choi, Sourindra Maiti, Carrie Yuen, Helen Huls, Robert Raphael, Thomas C Killian, Daniel J Stark, Dean A Lee, Elizabeth J Shpall, Partow Kebriaei, Richard E Champlin, Sibani L Biswal, and Laurence JN Cooper "Large Scale Generation Of Genetically Modified T-Cells Using Micro-Electroporators for Cancer Treatments."  (2008) Submitted

 
 

I. Quraishi, R. M. Raphael "Computational Model of Ion Transport Pathology inthe Stria Vascularis."  (2007)

 
 

Imran Quraishi, R.M. Raphael "A Mathematical Model of Ion Transport in the Stria Vascularis."  (2007)

 
 

J. Greeson and R.M. Raphael "Observation and modeling of amphipath-induced curvature changes in outer hair cells with fluorescence polarization microscopy."  (June, 2007)

 
 

J. Greeson and R.M. Raphael "Observation of amphipath-induced nanoscale curvature changes in cell membranes with fluorescence polarization microscopy."  (September, 2007)

 
 

J. Greeson, R. M. Raphael "Salicylate Alters the Orientational Order of the Outer Hair Cell Plasma Membrane: A Fluorescence Polarization Microscopy Study."  (2007)

 
 

J. Greeson, R. M. Raphael "Salicylate alters the orientational order of the outer hair cell plasma membrane: a fluorescence polarization microscopy study."  (March 3-7, 2007)

 
 

J. Greeson, R. M. Raphael "Salicylate alters the orientational order of the outer hair cell plasma membrane: a fluorescence polarization microscopy study."  (March 3-7, 2007)

 
 

LE. Organ, JN. Greeson, R. M. Raphael "Membrane Cholesterol Concentration Affects Prestin Organization and Lateral Mobility in the HEK Cell Membrane."  (2007)

 
 

LE. Organ, JN. Greeson, R. M. Raphael "Membrane cholesterol concentration affects prestin organization and lateral mobility in the HEK cell membrane."  (March 3-7, 2007)

 
 

Quraishi, I. and Raphael, R.M "Computational Model of Ion Regulation in the Inner Ear."  (September 2007)

 
 

RM. McGuire, FA. Pereira, R. M. Raphael "Modulation of Prestin Function Due to Cysteine Point Mutation."  (2007)

 
 

W. Triffo, K. McDonald, M. Auer, R. M. Raphael "Electron Tomographic Analysis of Outer Hair Cell Structure."  (2007)

 
 

Y. Zhou, C. Berry, P. Storer, R. M. Raphael "Peroxidation of Polyunsaturated Phosphatidyl-choline Lipids during Electroformation."  (March 3-7, 2007)

 
 

Glassinger, E. and Raphael, R.M. "Theoretical Analysis of Electromechanical Effects on Tether Formation." University of Texas Center for Biomedical Engineering (2005)

 
 

Greeson, J.N. and Raphael, R. M. "Orientation of Membrane Probes in Giant Unilamellar Vesicles." International Society of Optical Engineers: Photonics West 2005 Meeting (Jan. 22nd-26th , 2005)

 
 

Greeson, J.N. and Raphael, R. M. "Probing prestin self-association in transfected human embryonic kidney cells using fluorescence resonance energy transfer." 49th Annual Meeting of the Biophysical Society (Feb. 13th-16th, 2005)

 
 

Jennifer N. Greeson, Louise E. Organ, and Robert M. Raphael "Advanced optical techniques for investigating outer hair cell plasma membranes." 2005 MidWinter Meeting for the Association for Research in Otolaryngology (Feb. 19-24, 2005)

 
 

Louise E. Organ and Robert M. Raphael "Lateral mobility and diffusion in outer hair cell membranes." Rice University NSF-IGERT retreat (Jan. 29, 2005)

 
 

Louise E. Organ and Robert M. Raphael "Lateral mobility and diffusion in the outer hair cell plasma membrane." 49th Biophysical Society Annual Meeting (Feb. 12-16, 2005)

 
 

McGuire, R.M., Pereira, F.A., Raphael, R.M. "Investigations of the functional/structural implications of embedded cysteine residues in the molecular motor protein prestin."  (Feb. 18th-22nd, 2006)

 
 

McGuire, R.M., Pereira, F.A., Raphael, R.M. "Investigations of the functional/structural implications of embedded cysteine residues in the molecular motor protein prestin."  (Feb. 5th-9th, 2006)

 
 

Quraishi, I. H. and Raphael, R. M. "Mathematical Model of Ion Regulation in the Stria Vascularis." 5th International Symposium on Meniere's Disease and Inner Ear Homeostasis Disorders (2005)

 
 

Quraishi, I. H. and Raphael, R. M. "Model of Vectorial Ion Transport by Strial Marginal Cells." 28th Midwinter Research Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology

 
 

Triffo, W.J. and Raphael, R.M. "Modeling intracellular ion transport in the outer hair cell." Department of Enerdy Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Fellows' Conference (June 21-23, 2005)

 
 

Triffo, W.J. and Raphael, R.M. "Modeling intracellular ion transport in the outer hair cell." Department of Enerdy Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Fellows' Conference (June 21-23, 2005)

 
 

Triffo, W.J., McDonald, K.M., Auer, M., Raphael, R.M. "Electron tomography of the outer hair cell lateral wall."  (Feb. 5th-9th, 2006)

 
 

Triffo, W.J., McDonald, K.M., Auer, M., Raphael, R.M. "Electron tomography of the outer hair cell lateral wall ."  (Feb. 18th-22nd, 2006)

 
 

Yong Zhou and R. M. Raphael "Effect of Salicylate on the Elasticity, Bending Stiffness, and Pore Formation of SOPC Membranes." The nineteenth Annual Rice Quantum Institute Summer Research Colloquium (Aug. 12, 2005)

 
 

Yong Zhou and Robert Raphael "Effect of Effect of pH on SOPC Membrane Mechanics."  (Feb. 18-22. 2006)

 
 

Yong Zhou, R.M. Raphael, Lenard M. Lichtenberger "NSAIDs Break the Gastric Mucosal Barrier by Promoting the Formation Of Unstable Pores in Phospholipid Membranes." Digestive Disease Week, American Gastroenterology Association Annual Meeting (May 14-19, 2005)

 
 

E. Glassinger and Raphael, R. M. "Effects of Thermal Fluctuations and Cytoskeletal Adhesion on Membrane Tether Formation." 2004 Houston Society for Engineering in Medicine and Biology (2004) Submitted

 
 

E. Glassinger and Raphael, R. M. "Tension and Voltage Effects on Membrane Tether Formation." 47thAnnual Meeting of the Biophysical Society (2004/02)

 
 

Glassinger, E. Raphael, R. "Analysis of Electromechanical Effects on Tether Formation from Outer Hair Cells." Association for Research in Otolaryngology: Annual Meeting (2005/02) Submitted

 
 

Glassinger, E. Raphael, R. "Modeling tension and voltage effects on outer hair cell tether formation." Association for Research in Otolaryngology: Annual Meeting (2004/02)

 
 

Glassinger, E. Raphael, R. "Theoretical Analysis of Electromechanical Effects on Tether Formation from Outer Hair Cells." Biophysical Society: Annual Meeting (2005/02) Submitted

 
 

Glassinger, E. Raphael, R. "Theoretical Analysis of the Effects of Electric Fields on Tether Formation." UTCBME (2005/02) Submitted

 
 

Louise Organ, Dimitri Thomas, and Robert Raphael "Designing a Magnetic Force Transducer to Measure the Mechanical Properties of Cells. (poster)." IGERT annual retreat. Rice University (2004/01)

 
 

Spencer, N., Myrdal, S. Raphael, R. M. and Steyger, P.S. "Gentamycin Entry in Hair Cells." 2004 Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology (2004) Submitted

 
 

Yong Zhou and Robert Raphael "Salicylate Affects Membrane Mechanics (poster)." The 21st Annual Houston Conference on Biomedical Engineering Research (2004/02)

 
 

Zhou, Y. and Raphael, R. M. "Bovine Serum Albumin Can Affect Salicylate-lipid Interactions in the Membrane." 2004 Houston Society for Engineering in Medicine and BiologySubmitted

 
 

Zhou, Y. and Raphael, R. M. "Salicylate Affects Membrane Mechanics." 47thAnnual Meeting of the Biophysical Society (2004/02)

 
 

"Advanced Optical Techniques for Investigating Outer Hair Cell Plasma Membranes." Association for Research in Otolaryngology Mid-Winter Meeting (02/2005) Submitted

 
 

"Prestin self-association in transfected HEK cell plasma membranes." Biophysical Society Annual Meeting (02/2005) Submitted

 
 Refereed articles
 

Tseng, H, Balaoing, LR, Grigoryan, B,  Raphael, RM, Souza, GR,  Grande-Allen, KJ. A three-dimensional co-culture model of the aortic valve using magnetic levitation. Acta Biomater. 10(1):173. Jan. 2014

 
 

Stark, DJ, Peter Borden, Thomas C. Killian and Raphael, RM. Load-Rate Dependence of Threshold Force for Membrane Tether Formation.  Biophysical Journal Letters.  In revision

 
 

Timm, DM, Chen L, Raphael, RM, Killian TC, Tseng, H, Souza GR.  A high throughput three-dimensional cell migration assay for toxicity screening with mobile device-based macroscopic image analysis. Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing Group), Oct. 2013 3:3000

 
 

Tseng, H.  Jacob A. Gage, Raphael, RM Robert H. Moore, T. C. Killian, K. Jane Grande-Allen, Glauco R. Souza.  Assembly of a three-dimensional multitype bronchiole co-culture model using magnetic levitation. Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods. January 2013

 
 

Vitale, F. Jaewook Nam, Luca Turchetti, Marek Behr, Raphael, RM, Maria Cristina Annesini, Matteo   Pasquali. A multiscale, biophysical model of flow-induced red blood cell damage  AICHE Journal, 2013

 
 

William Jeffrey Triffo,  WT, Hildur Palsdottir, H,  Morgan, DG,   McDonald, KL,  Raphael, RM, Auer, M. 3D Architecture of the Outer Hair Cell Lateral Wall Presents a Paradox for Plasma Membrane-Based Mechanisms of Electromotility.

 
 

Greeson, JN. and R.M. Raphael "Application of fluorescence polarization microscopy to measure fluorophore orientation in the outer hair cell plasma membrane." Journal of Biomedical Optics, 12(2) (2007) : 021002.

 
 

I. H. Quraishi and R.M. Raphael "A Computational Model of Vectorial Potassium Transport by Cochlear Marginal Cells and Vestibular Dark Cells." American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology, 292(1) (2007) : C591-602.

 
 

Lavanya Rajagopalan, Jennifer N. Greeson, Anping Xia, Haiying Liu, Angela Sturm, Robert M. Raphael, Amy L. Davidson, John S. Oghalai, Fred A. Pereira, and William E. Brownell "Tuning of the outer hair cell motor by membrane cholesterol." Journal of Biological Chemistry (2007)

 
 

Organ, LE. and R.M. Raphael "Application of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching to study prestin lateral mobility in the human embryonic kidney cell." Journal of Biomedical Optics, 12(2) (2007) : 021003.

 
 

Y. Zhou and R. M. Raphael "Solution pH Alters Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Phosphatidylcholine Membranes: Relation between Interfacial Electrostatics, Intramembrane Potential and Bending Elasticity." Biophysical Journal, 92(7) (2007) : 2451-62.

 
 

Y. Zhou. Berry, C., Storer, P. and R. M. Raphael "Peroxidation of Polyunsaturated Phosphatidyl-choline Lipids during Electroformation." Biomaterials, 28(6) (2007) : 1298-1306.

 
 

Zhou, Y. and Raphael, R.M. "Electrostatic Interactions of Salicylate with PC Membranes: pH Sensitivity and Correlative Mechanical Effects."  (2007) Submitted

 
 

A. Spector, K. Grosh, T. Ratnanather, N. Deo and R.M. Raphael "Electromechanical Models of the Outer Hair Cell Composite Membrane." Journal of Membrane Biology, 209 (2-3) (2006) : 135-52.

 
 

E. Glassinger and R.M. Raphael "Influence of Thermally Driven Surface Undulations on Tethers Formed from Bilayer Membranes." Biophysical Journal, 91(2) (2006) : 619-625.

 
 

Greeson, JN., Organ, LE., Pereira, FP and R.M Raphael "Assessment of prestin self-association using fluorescence resonance energy transfer." Brain Research, 1091(1) (2006) : 140-50.

 
 

L. M. Lichtenberger, Y. Zhou, E.J. Dial and R.M. Raphael "NSAID Injury to the gastrointestinal tract: Evidence that NSAIDs interact with phospholipids to weaken the hydrophobic surface barrier and promote the formation of unstable pores in membranes." Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 58 (2006) : 1421-1428.

 
 

Quraishi, I., Raphael, R.M and RA Eatock "Modeling Nonquantal Transmission in the Vestibular Afferent Calyx." In preparation for Journal of Neurophysiology (2007)

 
 

Zhou, Y. and Raphael, R.M "Salicylate alters membrane electrostatics: effects of solution pH on weak acid-lipid interactions."  (2007)

 
 

David Tran and Robert M. Raphael "Formation and Stability of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles in Asymmetric Ionic Environments (in prepration)." 

 
 Articles
 

Chew SA, Hacker MC, Saraf A, Raphael RM, Kasper FK, Mikos AG. 2010. Altering Amine Basicities in Biodegradable Branched Polycationic Polymers for Nonviral Gene Delivery. Biomacromolecules. 2010 Feb 19.

 
 

McGuire RM, Liu H, Pereira FA, Raphael RM. Cysteine mutagenesis reveals transmembrane residues associated with charge translocation in prestin. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jan 29;285(5):3103-13.

 
 

Rajagopalan L, Organ-Darling LE, Liu H, Davidson AL, Raphael RM, Brownell WE, Pereira FA. 2010. Glycosylation Regulates Prestin Cellular Activity. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. Mar;11(1):39-51

 
 

Souza, GR, Molina, JR, Raphael, RM, Ozawa, MG, Stark, DJ, Levin, CS, Lawrence F. Bronk, LF, Anata, JS, Mandelin, J, Georgescu, M, Bankson, M, Juri G. Gelovani, JR, T. C. Killian,TC, Arap, W and Pasqualini, R. 2010.  Three Dimensional Tissue Culture Based on Magnetic Cell Levitation. Nature Nanotechnology (accepted).

 
 

Chew SA, Hacker MC, Saraf A, Raphael RM, Kasper FK, Mikos AG. Biodegradable branched polycationic polymers with varying hydrophilic spacers for non-viral gene delivery. Biomacromolecules. 2009 Sep 14;10(9):2436-45. PubMed PMID: 19678696; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2743757.

 
 

Greeson JN, Raphael RM. Amphipath-induced nanoscale changes in outer hair cell plasma membrane curvature. Biophys J. 2009 Jan;96(2):510-20. PubMed PMID: 19167301; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2716464.

 
 

Hartig SM, Ishikura S, Hicklen RS, Feng Y, Blanchard EG, Voelker KA, Pichot CS, Grange RW, Raphael RM, Klip A, Corey SJ. The F-BAR protein CIP4 promotes GLUT4 endocytosis through bidirectional interactions with N-WASp and Dynamin-2. J Cell Sci. 2009 Jul 1;122(Pt 13):2283-91. Epub 2009 Jun 9. PubMed PMID: 19509061; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2723146.

 
 

Martins AM, Pham QP, Malafaya PB, Raphael RM, Kasper FK, Reis RL, Mikos AG. Natural stimulus responsive scaffolds/cells for bone tissue engineering: influence of lysozyme upon scaffold degradation and osteogenic differentiation of cultured marrow stromal cells induced by CaP coatings. Tissue Eng Part A. 2009 Aug;15(8):1953-63. PubMed PMID: 19327018.

 
 

Martins AM, Pham QP, Malafaya PB, Sousa RA, Gomes ME, Raphael RM, Kasper FK, Reis RL, Mikos AG. The role of lipase and alpha-amylase in the degradation of starch/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) fiber meshes and the osteogenic differentiation of cultured marrow stromal cells. Tissue Eng Part A. 2009 Feb;15(2):295-305. PubMed PMID: 18721077.

 
 

McGuire RM, Liu H, Pereira FA, Raphael RM. Cysteine mutagenesis reveals transmembrane residues associated with charge translocation in prestin. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jan 29;285(5):3103-13. Epub 2009 Nov 19. PubMed PMID: 19926791.

 
 

Ofek G, Dowling EP, Raphael RM, McGarry JP, Athanasiou KA. Biomechanics of single chondrocytes under direct shear. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2009 Jul 31. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 19644718.

 
 

Organ LE, Raphael RM. Lipid lateral mobility in cochlear outer hair cells: regional differences and regulation by cholesterol. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2009 Sep;10(3):383-96. Epub 2009 Jun 11. PubMed PMID: 19517190.

 
 

Park H, Temenoff JS, Tabata Y, Caplan AI, Raphael RM, Jansen JA, Mikos AG. Effect of dual growth factor delivery on chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit marrow mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated in injectable hydrogel composites. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2009 Mar 15;88(4):889-97. PubMed PMID: 18381637.

 
 

Rajagopalan L, Organ-Darling LE, Liu H, Davidson AL, Raphael RM, Brownell WE, Pereira FA. Glycosylation Regulates Prestin Cellular Activity. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2009 Nov 7. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 19898896.

 
 

Saraf A, Baggett LS, Raphael RM, Kasper FK, Mikos AG. Regulated non-viral gene delivery from coaxial electrospun fiber mesh scaffolds. J Control Release. 2009 Dec 16. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 20006660.

 
 

Saraf A, Lozier G, Haesslein A, Kasper FK, Raphael RM, Baggett LS, Mikos AG. Fabrication of non-woven coaxial fiber meshes by electrospinning. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2009 Sep;15(3):333-344. PubMed PMID: 19196125; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2738761.

 
 

Greeson, JN, Raphael, RM "Amphipath-induced nanoscale Changes in Outer Hair Cell Plasma Membrane Curvature." Biophysics Journal, 96(2) (2009) : 510-520.

 
 

Levin CS, Kundu J, Janesko BG, Scuseria GE, Raphael RM, Halas NJ "Interactions of ibuprofen with hybrid lipid bilayers probed by complementary surface-enhanced vibrational spectroscopies." Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 112(45) (2008) : 14168-75.

 
 

Martins AM, Pham QP, Malafaya PB, Sousa RA, Gomes ME, Raphael RM, Kasper FK, Reis RL, Mikos AG "The Role of Lipase and alpha-Amylase in the Degradation of Starch/Poly(epsilon-Caprolactone) Fiber Meshes and the Osteogenic Differentiation of Cultured Marrow Stromal Cells." Tissue Engineering Part A (2008)

 
 

Organ, LE, Raphael, RM "Lipid Lateral Mobility in Cochlear Outer Hair cells: Regional Differences and Regulation by Cholesterol." Journal of the Association of Research in Otolaryngology (2009)

 
 

Park, H., Temenhoff, JS, Tabata, Y., Caplan, A., Raphael, RM., Jansen, JA and AG Mikos "Effect of Dual Growth Factor Delivery on Chondrogenic Differentiation of Encapsulated Rabbit Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells." Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: Part A (2008)

 
 

Quraishi, IH and Raphael, RM "Generation of the Endocochlear Potential: A Biophysical Model." Biophysical Journal, 94(7) (2008)

 
 

Shi, C, Tour, JM, Raphael, RM and AG Mikos "In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Biodegradable Polymer Nanocomposites." Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: Part A, 86(3) (2008) : 813-823.

 
 

Triffo WJ, Palsdottir H, McDonald KL, Lee JK, Inman JL, Bissell MJ, Raphael RM, Auer M "Controlled microaspiration for high-pressure freezing: a new method for ultrastructural preservation of fragile and sparse tissues for TEM and electron tomography." Journal of Microscopy, 230(Pt 2) (2008) : 278-87.

 
 

David Tran and Robert M. Raphael "Formation and Stability of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles in Asymmetric Ionic Environments."  (In preparation)

 
 

E. A. Glassinger and R.M. Raphael "Influence of Thermally Driven Surface Undulations on Tether Formation from Bilayer Membranes." Biophysical Journal (2005) In Revision

 
 

E. A. Glassinger and R.M. Raphael "Theoretical analysis of Tether Formation from Outer Hair Cells. Auditory Mechanisms: Processes and Models." World Scientific Publishing Co. (2005)

 
 

E. A. Glassinger, A.C. Lee and R.M. Raphael "Electromechanical Effects on Tether Formation from Lipid Membranes: A theoretical analysis." Physical Review E, 72 (2005) : 041926.

 
 

Emily Glassinger and Raphael, R. M. "Theoretical analysis of the voltage dependence of tethers formed from cellular membranes." Biophysical Journal (In preparation)

 
 

R. M. Raphael, John V. Stone, Stathis Karathanasis and Ananth Annapragada "Nanotechnology approaches to an automatic glucose sensing/insulin delivery system." PNAS (2005) In Revision

 
 

Y. Zhou and R. M. Raphael "Effect of Salicylate on the Elasticity, Bending Stiffness and Strength of SOPC Membranes." Biophysical Journal, 89 (2005) : 1789-1801.

 
 

Yong Zhou and R. M. Raphael "Effect of Effect of pH on SOPC Membrane Mechanics." Biophysical Journal (In preparation)

 
 

Yong Zhou, Lenard M. Lichtenberger and R.M. Raphael "Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) Induce Injury to the Gastrointestinal Tracts by Promoting the formation of Unstable Pores in Phospholipid Membranes." Journal Pharmacy and PharmacologySubmitted

 
 

Yong Zhou, Patrick Storer and R.M. Raphael "Lipid oxidation and electroformation." Journal of Lipid ResearchIn Revision

 
 

David Tran and Robert M. Raphael "Formation and Stability of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles in Asymmetric Ionic Environments." In Revision

 
 

E. A. Glassinger and R.M. Raphael "Electromechanical Effects in Membrane Tether Formation." In Revision

 
 

E. A. Glassinger and R.M. Raphael. "Influence of Thermally Driven Surface Undulations on Tether Formation from Bilayer Membranes.." Physical Review LettersSubmitted

 
 

R. M. Raphael, A. S. Popel and W. E. Brownell "An orientational dipole model for mechano- electrical coupling in the outer hair cell plasma membrane.." Biophys. J.In Revision

 
 

R.M. Raphael "Review of Bionanotechnology.." Annals of Biomed. Eng.In Revision

 
 

Y. Zhou and R. M. Raphael "Effect of Salicylate on the Elasticity, Bending Stiffness and Strength of SOPC Membranes." Biophysical JournalSubmitted

 
 

W. E. Brownell, B. Farrell and Raphael, R. M. "Membrane Electromechanics at Hair Cell Synapses." Biophysics of the Cochlea: From Molecules to Models (2003) : 169-176.

 
 Conference papers
 

Greeson, J.N. and Raphael, R. M. "Orientation of membrane probes in giant unilamellar vesicles." Proceedings of the International Society of Optical Engineers: Photonics West 2005 Meeting (Jan. 22nd-26th, 2005)

 
 

Quraishi, I. H. and Raphael, R. M. "Mathematical Model of a Marginal Cell in the Stria Vascularis." Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Meniere's Disease and Inner Ear Homeostasis Disorders (2005)

 
 Other
 

Yong Zhou and Robert Raphael "Salicylate Affects Membrane Mechanics (poster)." 48th Annual Biophysical Society meeting (2004/02)

 
 

Yong Zhou, Ida Soto, and Robert M. Raphael "Effect of Salicylate on Membrane Stability and Thickness (poster)." 49th Annual Biophysical Society meeting (2005/02) Submitted

 
 

Raphael, R. M. and A. S. Popel "Interaction of liposomal membranes with cochlear outer hair cells."  (2001/in preparation)

 
 

Raphael, R. M., A. S. Popel and W. E. Brownell "An orientational dipole model for mechano-electrical coupling in the outer hair cell plasma membrane ." Biophys. J. (2001/in review)

 
 

Raphael, R. M., Nakagawa, T., Brownell, W. E., and A. S. Popel "High resolution recordings of the outer hair cell voltage sensor."  (2001/in preparation)

 
 

Raphael RM, Waugh RE,Svetina S, Žekš, B.  2001. Fractional occurrence of defects in membranes and mechanically-driven interleaflet lipid transport.  Physical Review E. 64:5:1913-1921

 
 

Raphael, R. M., W. E. Brownell and A. S. Popel "Modeling voltage dependent diffusion in the cochlear outer our cell."  (2001/in preparation)

 
 

W. E. Brownell, A. A. Spector, R. M. Raphael, and A. S. Popel "Micro- and nanomechanics of the outer hair cell." Annual Reviews of Biomedical Engineering, 3 (2001) : 169-194.

 
Presentations
 Invited Papers
 

Kamar, RI, Cognet, L and Raphael, RM. Characterization of Prestin Oligomeriztion and Diffusion at the Single Molecule Level. 54th Annual Biophysical Society Meeting, San Francisco, CA. Feb. 20-24th, 2010

 
 

Kamar, RI, McGuire, RM, Pereira, FA and Raphael. RM. Voltage-Induced Molecular Movement in Prestin. 34th Midwinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, Anaheim, CA. Feb 6-10, 2010.

 
 

Kamar, RI, Cognet, L and Raphael, RM. Characterization of Prestin Oligomeriztion and Diffusion at the Single Molecule Level. 34th Midwinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, Anaheim, CA. Feb 6-10, 2010.

 
 

Stark, D, Killian, T. and Raphael, RM. Forces for Membrane Nanotube Formation Measured with a Magnetic Force Transducer. 54th Annual Biophysical Society Meeting, San Francisco, CA. Feb. 20-24th, 2010

 
 Invited Talks
 

“Auditory Bioengineering”, Texas A/M, Dept of Biomedical Engineering, Sept. 2013

 
 

“FRET-FLIM Measurements of Conformational Changes in Prestin”.  Association for Research in Otolaryngology Annual Meeting, Feb. 2013

 
 

Neuroengineering – the Auditory System and Beyond.”  Glassock School of Continuing Education, Rice University.  Lecture given as part of course: “The Newest in Neuroscience: How the Brain Affects Every Aspect of Our World.”  Oct. 2013 

 
 

"How the Ear Works." Nankai University, (October 2009)

 
 

"Molecular Basis of Outer Hair Cell Electromotility." Tianjin University, (October 2009)

 
 

"Probing the Molecular Basis of Prestin-Prestin and Prestin Membrane Interactions." The University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, TX), (November 2009)

 
 

"A Computational Model of Ion Transport in the Mammalian Cochlea." (2008) With I. Quaishi and R. Raphael

 
 

"Advanced Optical Imaging Approaches for Understanding Outer Hair Cell Function." Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JAPAN. (Oct. 2008)

 
 

"Mathematical model of the function of the stria vascularis." 18th Annual Meeting of Japanese Otological Society, Kobe, JAPAN. (Oct. 2008)

 
 

"Advanced Optical Imaging of Protein-Protein and Protein-Membrane Interactions." University of Genoa, Italy. (July 2007)

 
 

"Amphipath Induced Changes in Outer Hair Cell Plasma Membrane Curvature." Inner Ear Biology Meeting, London, England. (September 2007)

 
 

"Computational Model of Ion Transport in the Inner Ear." Auditory Systems Workshop, Ohio State University. (June, 2007)

 
 

"Intermolecular Interactions of Prestin." 234th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Boston, Massachusetts. (Aug. 2007)

 
 

"Prestin-Prestin and Prestin-Membrane Interactions." Kresge Hearing Research Center, University of Michigan. (May 2007)

 
 

"Computational Model of Potassium Transport in the Inner Ear: Connecting Genetics to Deafness." Rice CRC Research Symposium, (Nov. 28th, 2006)

 
 

"Electromechanical Coupling in Cells and Membranes: Theory and Experiment." Conference on “Cells and Materials: At the Interface between Mathematics, Biology and Engineering, Univ. of California Los Angeles, CA. (March, 2006)

 
 

"Electron tomographic analysis of outer hair cell structure." 30th MidWinter Meeting for the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, Denver, CO. (February 10-15, 2006) With Triffo, W.J., McDonald, K. M., Auer, M., Raphael, R. M

 
 

"Is Prestin a “Motor” Protein: Theoretical and Experimental Approaches to Membrane Electromechanics." Rice-Texas UK Symposium Meeting, Rice University. (Feb. 2006)

 
 

"Lateral diffusion and self- interactions of the outer hair cell protein prestin”." BMES Meeting. Symposium on Cell Membrane Mechanics and Bioengineering, Chicago, IL. (October, 2006)

 
 

"Lateral mobility and interactions of the outer hair cell protein prestin." IEEE-EMBS Meeting, New York, New York. (Aug. 2006.)

 
 

"Membrane Electromechanics and Biological Function: Perturbation of Interfacial Electrostatics, Intramembrane Potential, Bending Elasticity and Membrane Organization by Salicylate and pH." Rice University Biophysics Seminar Series, (Dec. 15th, 2006)

 
 

"Probing Interactions of Inner Ear Proteins with FRET." 29th Annual Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolarynolgy, Baltimore, MD. (Feb. 2006)

 
 

"Advanced Optical Techniques for Investigating the outer hair cell protein prestin.." Inner Ear Biology (IEB) Workshop 2005/ Eberhard-Karls University Tubingen, (September 19th, 2005)

 
 

"Effect of Salicylate on the Elasticity, Bending Stiffness, and Pore Formation of SOPC Membranes." The nineteenth Annual Rice Quantum Institute Summer Research Colloquium, Houston, TX. (Aug. 12, 2005) With Yong Zhou and Robert Raphael

 
 

"Effect of Salicylate on the Elasticity, Bending Stiffness, and Pore Formation of SOPC Membranes." The nineteenth Annual Rice Quantum Institute Summer Research Colloquium, Houston, TX. (Aug 12, 2005) With Yong Zhou and Robert Raphael

 
 

"Membrane Bioengineering Meets Auditory Physiology: New Views on Outer Hair Cell Electromotility, Salicylate Ototoxicity and Potassium Transport by Marginal Cells." Center for Hearing and Communication Research, Karolinska, Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. (Sept. 26th, 2005)

 
 

"Membrane Biophysics and Auditory Physiology: Not so Strange Bedfellows." Stockholm Centre for Physics, Astronomy and Biotechnology. The Royal Institute of Techonlogy (KTH). Theoretical Biological Physics Group., Stockholm, Sweden. (Sept. 27th, 2005)

 
 

"Probing Interactions of Inner Ear Proteins with FRET." 29th Annual Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolarynolgy, Baltimore, MD. (Feb. 2006)

 
 

"Theoretical analysis of Tether Formation from Outer Hair Cells." Ninth Annual Mechanics of Hearing Meeting. Oregon Hearing Research Center, Portland, Oregon. (July 23 - 28, 2005)

 
 

"Voltage Dependence of the force required for membrane tether formation." 42nd Workshop on Inner Ear Biology. Eberhard-Karls University, Tubingen, Germany. (September 18th-20th, 2005) With E. Glassinger and R.M. Raphael

 
 

"Advanced Optical Techniques for Investigating Outer Hair Cell Plasma Membranes.." 28th MIDWINTER MEETING of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, New Orleans, LA. (Feb. 19-24 2005) With Jennifer N Greeson, Louise E Organ, and Robert M Raphael

 
 

"Application of Fluorescence Polarization Microscopy to Study Molecular Orientation in Membranes ." Rice Quantum Institute Summer Research, Houston, TX. (08/2004)

 
 

"Effect of Salicylate on the Elasticity, Bending Stiffness, and Pore Formation of SOPC Membranes (talk)." 2nd Annual Gulf Coast Consortium for Membrane Biology Fall Symposium 2004, Houston, TX. (Nov. 20, 2004) With Yong Zhou and Robert M. Raphael

 
 

"Effects of thermal fluctuations and cytoskeletal adhesion on membrane tether formation ." Houston Society for Engineering in Medicine and Biology. 21st Annual Houston Conference on Biomedical Engineering, Houston, TX. (February, 2004) With Glassinger, E. Raphael, R.

 
 

"Fluorescence Polarization Microscopy Study of Molecular Orientation in Synthetic Membranes ." Photonics West, San Jose, CA. (01/2005)

 
 

"Lateral mobility and diffusion in the outer hair cell plasma membrane.." 49th Annual Biophysical Society meeting, Long Beach, CA. (Feb. 12-16. 2005) With Louise E Organ and Robert M Raphael

 
 

"Mechanochemical and Electromechanical Coupling in Membranes: From Synthetic Vesicles to Outer Hair Cells.." Univ. of Houston. (April 4th, 2004)

 
 

"Modeling tension in cellular membranes." Rice University: Institute of Biosciences and Engineering. NSF IGERT Annual Retreat., Houston TX. (January, 2004) With Glassinger, E. Raphael, R.

 
 

"Salicylate and membrane elasticity, rigidity and strength (talk)." Rice Quantum Institute Summer Research Colloquium XVIII, Houston, TX. (Aug. 06, 2004) With Yong Zhou1 and Robert M. Raphael2

 
 

"Thermodynamics of Membrane Tethers and ?Maxwell reciprocity and flexoelectricity ." Second World Congress on Flexoelectricity, Houston, TX. (January, 2004) With Glassinger, E. Raphael, R

 
 

"Mechanochemical and Electromechanical Coupling in Lipid Bilayer Membranes: Theory and Experiment ." Biophysics Seminar Series, Rice University. (Feb. 2003)

 
 

"Membrane Mechanics." Gulf Coast Consortium for Membrane Biology, (Sept. 13, 2003)

 
 

"Membrane Mechanics and Outer Hair Cell Electromotility." Lake Ontario Auditory Research Meeting, Rochester, NY. (June 23-24th, 2003)

 
 

"Membrane and Cochlear Bioengineering." 3rd Annual Biotechnology / Life Sciences Technology Innovation Forum, Rice University. (Nov. 21st, 2003)

 
 

"Modeling Outer Hair Cell Electromotility." First Meeting of Houston Theoretical Neuroscientists, Rice University. (October 26, 2003)

 
 

"Nanoelectromechanical Transduction in Auditory Hair Cells." Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos, NM. (March, 2003)

 
 

"Nanoelectromechanical Transduction in Auditory Hair Cells." Computational and Applied Mathematics Seminar Series, Rice University. (April, 2003)

 
 

"Resolving the Bending Motor/Area Motor Controversy." Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, (2003) With Raphael, R. M. and E. Glassinger.

 
 

"What Thin Nanotubes can Teach us about Lipid Membranes." 2nd World Congress on Flexoelectricity, Rice University. (Dec. 4-5, 2003)

 
 

"Effect of Membrane Modifiers on Electroporation Thresholds." Gordon Conference on Bioelectrochemistry, Mt. Holyoke, MA.. (July 18-23rd, 2002)

 
 

"Electromechanical Transduction in Cochlear Outer Hair Cells: Tales of Curved Membranes and Broken-Down Sulfate Transporters." Dept. of Biochemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas. (September 9, 2002)

 
 Lectures
 

"Fundamentals of Systems Physiology (BIOE 322)." (2006)

 
 

"Introduction to Special Education (EDUC 310)." (2006)

 
 

"The Ethics of Bioscience and Bioengineering (BIOE 594)."

 
 Other
 

Characterization of Prestin Oligomeriztion and Diffusion at the Single Molecule Level Ramsey I. Kamar, L. Cognet, and R. M. Raphael. Rice Quantum Institute Annual Research Colloquium. August, 2009.

 
 

Forces for Membrane Nanotube Formation Measured with a Magnetic Force Transducer Daniel Stark, T. Killian, and R. Raphael. Rice Quantum Institute Annual Research Colloquium. August, 2009.

 
 

Ionic Amphipaths Affect Prestin Self-Association *Robert M. Raphael, Charlie Foucar, Jenni Greeson, Ramsey I. Kamar. 33nd Midwinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology. Feb 14th-19th, Baltimore, MD

 
 

Voltage-Dependent Interactions of the Outer Hair Cell Motor Protein Prestin *Ryan M. McGuire, Ramsey I. Kamar, Charlie Foucar, Frederick A. Pereira, Robert M. Raphael. 33nd Midwinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology. Feb 14th-19th, Baltimore, MD

 
 

"High Throughput Non-viral Gene Transfer of T Cells by Micro-electroporators to Generate CD19-specific Cells for Immediate Infusion." The 2009 Blood and Marrow Transplantation (BMT) Tandem Meetings, With Yoonsu Choi, Sourindra Maiti, Carrie Yuen, Helen Huls, Sibani L Biswal, Robert Raphael, Thomas C Killian, Daniel J Stark, Dean A Lee, Elizabeth J Shpall, Partow Kebriaei, Richard E Champlin, and Laurence JN Cooper

 
 

"High-Throughput Analysis of Cell Electroporation." 2008 Annual Meeting of the AIChE, Philadelphia, PA. (Nov. 4-9, 2008) With Biswal, S. L., Stark, D. J., Du, N., Choi, P., Maiti, S., Lee, D., Cooper, L. J. N., Raphael, R. M., Killian, T. C.

 
 

"A Liquid Crystal Model of Nanoelectromechanical Transduction in Cochlear Outer Hair Cells." Dept. of Bioengineering, Univ, Missouri ? Columbia. (Jan. 25th, 2001)

 
 

"Active Hearing at the Nanoscale: A Membrane Bending Mechanism of Outer Hair Cell Electromotility." Dept. of Bioengineering. Universtiy of Illinois at Chicago. "Active Hearing at the Nanoscale: A Membrane Bending Mechanism of Outer Hair Cell Electromotili." Dept. of Bioengineering, Universtiy of Illinois at Chicago. (Feb. 12th, 2001)

 
 

"Cochlear Engineering, Outer Hair Cell Electromotility and Membrane Bending: How Liquid Crystal Physics Pulls It All Together." Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Rice University. (April 2, 20001)

 
 

"Curvature Elasticity in Cochlear Outer Hair Cells." ASME Bioengineering Division Symposium on Membrane Mechanics, 2001 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Snowbird, Utah. (June 27th-July 1st, 2001)

 
 

"Dimpled Surfaces, Polarized Constituents and Local Irregularities: Modeling Mechanoelectrical Coupling in Cochlear Outer Cochler Cells and Other Excitable Membranes." Neuroengineering Seminar Series, Johns Hopkins University. (Jan. 2001)

 
 

"Influences on Structure and Electromotility of Hair Cells." 4th Annual Meeting of the German Audiologic Society, Aachen, Germany. (March 21st-24th 2001)

 
 

"Liquid Crystals, Corrugated Surfaces and High Frequency Hearing: A New Model for Nanoelectromechanical Transduction in Cochlear Outer Hair Cells." Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Notre Dame. (March 14th, 2001)

 
 

"Membrane Curvature and Cochlear Fine-Tuning: A New Nanoelectromechanical Model of Outer Hair Cell Electromotility." Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, State University of New York,Stony Brook. (Feb. 16th, 2001)

 
 

"Nanoelectromechanics of Active Hearing: A Membrane Bending Model of Cochlear Outer Hair Cell Electromotility." Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Univ. of Minnesota. (March 12th,2001)

 
 Posters
 

"Characterization of Prestin Stoichiometries Using Single Molecule Fluorescence Microscopy." 31st Annual MidWinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, Pheonix, AZ. (Feb. 16-21, 2008) With Kamar RI, Cognet L, and Raphael RM

 
 

"Development of a Microfabricated Microelectroporator." Gulf Coast Innovation Conference, Houston, TX. (Nov. 18, 2008) With Stark, DJ, Du, N, Camero, K, Choi, P, Lee, D, Maiti, S, Cooper, LJN, Biswal, SL, Killian, TC, Raphael,RM

 
 

"Development of a Microfabricated Microelectroporator." 2008 BMES Annual Fall Meeting, St. Louis, MO. (Oct. 2-4, 2008) With Stark, D. J., Du, N., Camero, K., Choi, P., Lee, D., Maiti, S., Cooper, L. J. N., Biswal, S. L., Killian, T. C., Raphael, R. M.

 
 

"Development of a Microfabricated Microelectroporator." Keck Annual Research Conference, Houston, TX. (Oct. 3-4, 2008) With Stark, D. J., Du, N., Camero, K., Choi, P., Lee, D., Maiti, S., Cooper, L. J. N., Biswal, S. L., Killian, T. C., Raphael, R. M.

 
 

"Development of a Microfabricated Microelectroporator." 22nd Annual RQI Research Colloquium, Houston, TX. (Aug. 8, 2008) With Stark, D. J., Du, N., Camero, K., Choi, P., Lee, D., Maiti, S., Killian, T. C., Raphael, R. M., Cooper, L. J. N., Biswal, S. L.

 
 

"Effects of Cysteine Mutations on Prestin Function and Oligomerization." 31st Annual MidWinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, Phoenix, AZ. (Feb. 16-21, 2008) With McGuire RM, Pereira FA, Silberg JJ, and Raphael RM

 
 

"Electron Tomographic Analysis of Outer Hair Cell Structure ." 2008 BMES Annual Fall Meeting, St. Louis, MO. With J. Triffo, M. Auer, R. Raphael

 
 

"Mechanosensitivity of Prestin Is Mediated by Nanoscale Membrane Curvature." 2008 BMES Annual Fall Meeting, St. Louis, MO. (2008) With J. Greeson and R. Raphael

 
 

"Modulates Lateral Mobility in Outer Hair Cells Plasma Membrane Cholesterol Concentration." 2008 BMES Annual Fall Meeting, St. Louis, MO. (2008) With L. Organ and R. Raphael

 
 

"Optimization and High-Throughput Microelectroporation of Jurkat Cells ." 2008 BMES Annual Fall Meeting, St. Louis, MO. (2008) With D. STARK, P. CHOI, L. COOPER , T. KILLIAN, L. BISWAL AND R. RAPHAEL

 
 

"Single Molecule Fluorescence Detection of Prestin Oligomerization." 52nd Annual Biophysical Society Meeting, Long Beach, CA. (Feb. 2-6, 2008) With Kamar RI, Cognet L, Raphael RM

 
 

"Voltage Dependent Interactions in the OHC Motor Protein Prestin." 22nd Annual RQI Research Colloquium, Houston, TX. (Aug. 8, 2008) With Kamar RI, McGuire RM, Focaur CE, Raphael, RM

 
 

"Computational model of ion transport pathology in the stria vascularis." 30th MidWinter Meeting for the Association for Research in Otolaryngology. (Feb. 11-15, 2007) With Quraishi, I. H., Raphael, R. M.

 
 

"Membrane cholesterol concentration affects prestin organization and lateral mobility in the HEK cell membrane." Denver, CO. (Feb. 11-15, 2007) With Organ, LE, Greeson, JN, and Raphael, RM.

 
 

"Membrane cholesterol concentration affects prestin organization and lateral mobility in the HEK cell membrane." 51st Biophysical Society Annual Meeting. (March 3-7, 2007) With Organ, LE, Greeson, JN, and Raphael, RM.

 
 

"Assessment of prestin self-association using acceptor photobleach fluorescence resonance energy transfer." Rice University Institute of Biosciences and Bioengineering Research Symposium, Houston, TX. (July 13, 2006) With Greeson, J.N. and Raphael, R.M

 
 

"Assessment of prestin self-association using acceptor photobleach fluorescence resonance energy transfer." Association for Research in Otolaryngology Mid-Winter Meeting, Baltimore, MD. (Feb. 18th -22nd , 2006) With Greeson, J.N., Organ, L.E. and Raphael, R.M

 
 

"Computational model of ion transport in the stria vascularis." Annual Fall Meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society, Chicago, IL. (Oct. 11-14, 2006) With Quraishi, I. H., Raphael, R. M.

 
 

"Electron tomographic analysis of outer hair cell structure." 30th Anniversary Baylor College of Medicine M.D./Ph.D. Symposium, Houston, TX. (August 24-26, 2006) With Triffo, W.J., McDonald, K. M., Auer, M., Raphael, R. M

 
 

"Electron tomographic analysis of outer hair cell structure." The 4th International Congress on Electron Tomography, San Diego, CA. (November 5-8, 2006) With Triffo, W.J., McDonald, K. M., Auer, M., Raphael, R. M.

 
 

"Electron tomographic analysis of outer hair cell structure." LBNL Life Sciences Division Annual Retreat, Berkeley, CA. (November 30, 2006) With Triffo, W.J., McDonald, K. M., Auer, M., Raphael, R. M

 
 

"Electron tomographic analysis of outer hair cell structure." Department of Energy Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Fellows' Conference, Washington, DC. (June 20-22, 2006) With Triffo, W.J., McDonald, K. M., Auer, M., Raphael, R. M

 
 

"Electron tomography of the outer hair cell: lateral wall and rootlet architecture." 29th MidWinter Meeting for the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, Baltimore, MD. (Feb. 5-9, 2006.) With Triffo, W.J., McDonald, K. M., Auer, M., Raphael, R. M

 
 

"Electron tomography of the outer hair cell: lateral wall and rootlet architecture." 50th Annual Meeting of the Biophysical Society, Salt Lake City, UT. (Feb. 18th-22nd, 2006) With Triffo, W.J., McDonald, K. M., Auer, M., Raphael, R. M.

 
 

"Lateral diffusion and interactions of the outer hair cell protein prestin." American Chemical Society 232nd National Meeting & Exposition, San Francisco, CA. (Sept. 10 -14, 2006) With Organ, LE, Greeson, JN, and Raphael, RM

 
 

"Lateral diffusion and interactions of the outer hair cell protein prestin." Biomedical Engineering Society 2006 Annual Fall Meeting, Chicago, IL. (Oct. 11-14, 2006.) With Organ, LE, Greeson, JN, and Raphael, RM.

 
 

"Model of ion transport in the stria vascularis." 29th Midwinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, Baltimore, MD. (Feb. 5-9, 2006) With Quraishi, I. H., Raphael, R. M.

 
 

"Model of ion transport in the stria vascularis." 11th Annual Sealy Center for Structural Biology Symposium, Galveston, TX. (May 19-20, 2006) With Quraishi, I. H., Raphael, R. M.

 
 

"Model of ion transport in the stria vascularis." 29th Midwinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, Baltimore, MD. (Feb. 5-9, 2006) With Quraishi, I. H., Raphael, R. M.

 
 

"Models of cochlear and vestibular electrophysiology." Baylor College of Medicine Medical Scientist Training Program Scientific Symposium, Houston, TX,. (Aug. 25-26, 2006) With Quraishi, I. H., Eatock, R. A., Raphael, R. M.

 
 

"Numerical simulation of the calyx synapse of vestibular type I hair cells." Neuroscience, Atlanta, GA. (Oct. 14-18, 2006) With Quraishi, I. H., Hurley, K. M., Raphael, R. M., Eatock, R. A

 
 

"Orientation of fluorescent molecules in synthetic membranes." 50th Annual Meeting of the Biophysical Society, Salt Lake City, UT. (Feb. 5th -9th , 2006) With Greeson, J.N. and Raphael, R.M

 
 

"Prestin lateral mobility and the effects of cholesterol depletion." Twenty-Ninth Annual MidWinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, Baltimore, MD. (Feb. 5-9, 2006) With Organ, LE and Raphael, RM

 
 

"Prestin lateral mobility and the effects of cholesterol depletion." Rice University Institute of Biosciences and Bioengineering Research Symposium, Houston, TX. (July 13, 2006) With Organ, LE and Raphael, RM

 
 

"Salicylate alters the orientational order of the outer hair cell plasma membrane: a fluorescence polarization microscopy study." Association for Research in Otolaryngology Mid-Winter Meeting, Denver, CO. (Feb. 10th -15th , 2006) With Greeson, J.N. and Raphael, R.M

 
 

"Using magnetic force transducers to stimulate TRP channels during T cell activation." Annual Meeting of the American Association of Immunologists, Boston, MA. (May 12-16, 2006) With Holtzclaw JD, Organ LE, and Raphael RM

 
 

"Advanced Optical Techniques for Investigating the outer hair cell protein prestin." Annual Fall Meeting of the BMES, (September 28th-Oct. 1st, 2005) With J. Greeson, L. Organ and R. M. Raphael

 
 

"Effect of Salicylate on Membrane Stability and Thickness." 49th Annual Biophysical Society meeting, Long Beach, CA. (Feb. 12-16. 2005) With Yong Zhou, Ida Soto, and Robert Raphael

 
 

"Effect of Salicylate on the Elasticity, Bending Stiffness, and Strength of Lipid Membranes." 42nd Workshop on Inner Ear Biology. Eberhard-Karls University, Tubingen, Germany. (September 18th-20th, 2005) With Yong Zhou and R. M. Raphael

 
 

"Effect of Salicylate on the Elasticity, Bending Stiffness, and Strength of Lipid Membranes." Annual Fall Meeting of the BMES, (Sep. 28th-Oct. 1st, 2005) With Yong Zhou and R. M. Raphael

 
 

"How many prestin molecules does it take to make an outer hair cell move? Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery." Copper Mountain, CO. (Jul. 24th-28th, 2005) With Greeson, J.N., Organ, L.E., Pereira, F.A. and Raphael, R. M.

 
 

"Investigation of Ionic Currents in Marginal Cells of the Guinea Pig Cochlea." Rice University. NSF-IGERT retreat, Houston, TX. (Jan. 29, 2005) With McGuire, R.M., Eatock, R.A., and Raphael, R.M.

 
 

"Investigation of Ionic Currents in Marginall Cells of the Guinea Pig Cochlea." Rice University. NSF-IGERT retreat, Houston, TX. (Jan. 29, 2005) With McGuire, R.M., Eatock, R.A., amd Robert Raphael

 
 

"Numerical simulation of ion transport in the stria vascularis of the cochlea." Annual Fall Meeting of the BMES, (September 28th-Oct. 1st, 2005) With I. Quraishi and R. M. Raphael

 
 

"Numerical simulation of ion transport in the stria vascularis of the cochlea." Eberhard-Karls University, Tubingen, Germany. (September 18th-20th, 2005) With I. Quraishi and R. M. Raphael

 
 

"Voltage Dependence of the force required for membrane tether formation." Annual Fall Meeting of the BMES, (September 28th-Oct. 1st, 2005) With E. Glassinger and R.M. Raphael

 
 

"Fluorescent Observation of Salicylate-Induced Shape Changes in Giant Unilamellar Vesicles." 46thAnnual Meeting of the Biophysical Society, San Antonio, Texas. (March 1-5, 2003) With Zhou, Y. and Raphael, R. M.

 
 

"Formation and Stability of Cationic Liposomes in Asymmetric Ionic Environments." 46thAnnual Meeting of the Biophysical Society, San Antonio, Texas. (March 1-5, 2003) With Tran, D. and Raphael, R. M.

 
 

"Salicylate Induced Softening of Lipid Membranes." Hairy Interfaces and Stringy Molecules: Summer School and Workshop on Colloids and Biophysics, Odense, Denmark. (Aug. 13-17th, 2003) With Y. Zhou and R.M. Raphael

 
 

"Theoretical Analysis of Tether Formation Electromotile Membranes." 46thAnnual Meeting of the Biophysical Society, San Antonio, Texas. (March 1-5, 2003) With Glassinger, E. and Raphael, R. M.

 
 

"Thermal Fluctuations and Tether Formation." Hairy Interfaces and Stringy Molecules: Summer School and Workshop on Colloids and Biophysics, Odense, Denmark. (Aug. 13-17, 2003) With E. Glassinger and R.M. Raphael

 
 

"Visualizing the distribution of terminal sugars on complex carbohydrates in the guinea pig cochlea using fluorescently- conjugated lectins." Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, (2003) With Spencer, N., Myrdal, S. Raphael, R. M. and Steyger, P.S.

 
 

"Effect of Salicylate on Membrane Electromechanics." Second Joint EMBS-BMES Conference, Houston, Texas. (October 23-26, 2002) With Zeng, J.

 
 Session Chair
 

"Molecular Engineering." 2006 Meeting of the IEEE EMBS Conference, New York City. (Sept. 2006)

 
Editorial Positions
 Other, Physical Review E. (2010 - 2010)

 Other, Tissue Engineering. (2010 - 2010)

 Other, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. (2010 - 2010)

 Other, Hearing Research. (2010 - 2010)

 Other, Nanotechnology. (2010 - 2010)

 Other, Journal of Neuroscience Letters. (2010 - 2010)

 Other, Physical Review Letters. (2010 - 2010)

 Other, Annals of Biomedical Engineering. (2010 - 2010)

 Other, Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology. (2010 - 2010)

 Other, Biophysical Journal. (2010 - 2010)

 Other, Biophysical Journal. (2005 - 2005)

 Other, Annals of Biomedical Engineering. (2005 - 2005)

 Other, Physical Review Letters. (2005 - 2005)

Supervised Theses & Dissertations
 Vijay Iyer, High-speed, Random-Access Fluorescence Microscopy. (2004) (Committee Member)

 Adrien Wang, Fibre-Optic Probe Design for Spatially Resolved Reflectance Spectroscopy in Epithelial Tissue. (2004) (Committee Member)

 Heidi Holtorf, Ph.D Modulation of Marrow Stromal Cell Differentiation in Bone Tissue Engineering Constructs. (2004) (Committee Member)

 Jeff Myers, Ph.D. Biochemistry Human UP1 as a model for understanding purine recognition in the family of proteins containing the RNA Recognition Motif (RRM). (2004) (Committee Member)

 Imran Quraishi, MD/PhD student Mathematical Modeling of Potassium Transport in the Organ of Corti. (2004) (Thesis or Dissertation Director)

 Ryan McGuire, PhD student, Electrophysiological Recordings from Marginal Cells. (2004) (Thesis or Dissertation Director)

 Jeff Triffo, MD/PhD student Computational Modeling of Ion Homeostasis and Systems Physiology. (2004) (Thesis or Dissertation Director)

 Christopher Loo, Metal Nanoshells: Contrast Agents for Molecular Imaging. (2004) (Committee Member)

 Alex Lin, Optical Detection of Epithelial Cancer: Modeling and Experimental Evaluation of Nanoshells as a Biological Contrast Agent. (2004) (Committee Member)

 Emily Glassinger, PhD. Student, Nanoelectromechanical Transduction at Interfaces. (2004) (Thesis or Dissertation Director)

 Yong Zhou, PhD student Effect of Amphiphilic Molecules on Membrane Mechanics. (2004) (Thesis or Dissertation Director)

 Jennifer Greeson, PhD. Student Advanced Imaging Techniques for Studying Membrane Mechanics. (2004) (Thesis or Dissertation Director)

 Louise Organ, PhD student Rho-GTPase signaling in the cochlea. (2004) (Thesis or Dissertation Director)

 Min-Ho Lee, Metal Nanoshells: Contrast Agents for Optical Imaging. (2004) (Committee Member)

 Maureen Mueller, Gold Nanoparticles for Dual Imaging and Therapy of Cancer. (2006) (Committee Member)

 Nikta Fakhri, Ph.D Candidate in Chemical Engineering Behavior of stabilized SWNTs in fluids. (2006) (Committee Member)

 Alex Lin, Optical Detection of Epithelial Cancer: Modeling and Experimental Evaluation of Nanoshells as a Biological Contrast Agent. (2006) (Committee Member)

 Jaime Becnel, Ph.D. Biochemistry and Cell Biology The Arabidopsis TCH genes. (2006) (Committee Member)

 Emmanuel Chang, Biological Applications of Novel Fluorescent Nanoprobes. (2006) (Committee Member)

 Bioengineering A Thermodynamic Analysis of Tethers Formed from Lipid Bilayers: Influence of Electromechanical Coupling, Entropic Tensions and Membrane Cytoskeletal Adhesion. (2006) (Committee Member)

 Benjamin Appiah, PhD. Candidate in Electrical Engineering Inverse model for the extraction of biological parameters from ovarian tissue fluorescence spectra and multivariate classifiers for tissue diagnosis. (2006) (Committee Member)

 Ramkumar Krishnamorthy, MS Voltage Dependent Stiffness of HEK Cell Membranes. (2007) (Committee Member)

 Gaddumm Reddy, Ph.D. A Multi-Photon Microscope for Three Dimensional Functional Recording of Fast Neuronal Activity. (2007) (Committee Member)

 Jiantang Sun, Applied Physics Photonics-Based Strategies for Minimally Invasive Caner Diagnosis Using Endogenous and Molecular Contrast. (2007) (Committee Member)

 Kun Fu, Ph.D. Applied Physics Polarized Angular Dependent Light Scattering from Plasmonic Nanoparticles: Modeling, Measurements and Biomedical Applications.. (2007) (Committee Member)

 Imran Quraishi, Mathematical Modeling of Potassium Transport in the Inner Ear. (2007) (Committee Member)

 Yong Zhou, Effect of NSAIDs on the Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Biomembranes. (2007) (Committee Member)

 Adrien Wang, Ph.D. Fiber-Optic Probe Design for Spatially Resolved Reflectance Spectroscopy in Epithelial Tissue. (2007) (Committee Member)

 Xiaoyang Bai, Biochemistry and Cell Biology The molecular mechanism of membrane fusion in the yeast S.cerevisiae. (2007) (Committee Member)

 Ekaterina Pronina, Chemistry Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Processes in Two-Channel Systems. (2007) (Committee Member)

 Chaoping Qin, Biochemistry Development of threading method for functional annotation. (2007) (Committee Member)

 Jiantang Sun, Applied Physics. Photonics-Based Strategies for Minimally Invasive Caner Diagnosis Using Endogenous and Molecular Contrast. (2007) (Committee Member)

 Rui Li, Ph.D. Monitoring [2FeS]2+ Cluster Content of Human Glutaredoxin 2 Using Fluorescent Proteins. (2008) (Committee Member)

 Jennifer Greeson, Ph.D. Investigating the Role of the Outer Hair Cell Plasma Membrane in Electro-motility and Prestin Function Using Advanced Optical Microscopy. (2008) (Thesis or Dissertation Director)

 Louise Organ, Ph.D. Investigating the Lateral Mobility of Outer Hair Cell Plasma Membrane Constituents by Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching. (2008) (Thesis or Dissertation Director)

 Todd Jaszewski, Ph.D. Specificity of Transmembrane Domain Self-Association by Mutagenesis and Protein Design. (2008) (Committee Member)

 Ian Dews, Ph.D. The Four Syndecans: A Fugue in GxxxG Minor. (2008) (Committee Member)

 Jeff Triffo, Ph.D. Investigation of the Structure of the Outer Hair Cell Lateral Wall Using Electron Tomography. (2008) (Thesis or Dissertation Director)

 Ekaterina Pronina, Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Processes in Two-Channel Systems. (Committee Member)

 Shivas Amin, Investigation of Mechanisms Regulating Proliferation in the Zebrafish Developmental Program. (Committee Member)

 Chaoping Qin, Development of threading method for functional annotation. (Committee Member)

 Andrew Barrow, Spatiotemporal Response of the Photoreceptor Network. (Committee Member)

 Daniel Stark, Masters Degree The Use of a Microelectroporator to Study Poration of Jurkat Cells . (Thesis or Dissertation Director)

 Ryan McGuire, Electrophysiological Investigation of Prestin Function: Impact of Cysteine Replacement and Characterization of Self-association During Voltage Stimulation. (Thesis or Dissertation Director)

 Xiaoyang Bai, The molecular mechanism of membrane fusion in the yeast S.cerevisiae. (Committee Member)

 Andrew Barrow, Ph.D Spatiotemporal Response of the Photoreceptor Network. (Committee Member)

Awards, Prizes, & Fellowships
 Charles W. Duncan Award for Outstanding Faculty, Rice University (2010)

 NSF CAREER Fellowship, National Science Foundation (NSF) (2005-2010)

 CAREER, (2005-2010)

 Distinguished Associate, (2007)

 GSA Mentoring, (2007)

 CAREER Award, NSF (2005-2010)

 CAREER Award, NSF (2005-2010)

 Student Award: Imran Quraishi, Keck Center for Computational and Structural Biology Fello (1/01/04)

 2003 Judith and David Wach Family Foundation Award in Auditory Science, National Organization for Hearing Research (8/15/2003)

 2002 RAF Award in Auditory Science, National Organization for Hearing Research (11/13/02)

 2002 RAF Foundation Grant in Auditory Science, National Organization for Hearing Research (2002)

 Member, American Physical Society

 Member, Biophysical Society (1990-present)

 Member, Association for Research in Otolaryngology

 Member, American Association for the Advancement of Science

 Postdoctoral Representative, Biomedical Engineering Faculty

 Editor-in-Chief, Notre Dame Science Quarterly

 Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers

Positions Held
 Reviewer, Physical Review Letters. (2009 - 2009)

 Member, American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2010 - 2010)

 Member, Diversity and Minority Affairs Committee, Association for Research in Otolarynology . (2010 - 2010)

 Ad Hoc Reviewer, NIH AUD Study Session, NIH.. (2010 - 2010)

 Member, Biomedical Engineering Society. (2010 - 2010)

 Member, Local Organizing Committee for the Southwestern and Rocky Mountain Division (SWARM), American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Annual Meeting 2010. (2010 - 2010)

 Reviewer, Tissue Engineering. (2009 - 2009)

 Reviewer, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. (2009 - 2009)

 Member, Biophysical Society . (2010 - 2010)

 Reviewer (Grant Panel/Scientific Reviewer), NIH. (2009 - 2009)

 Reviewer (Grant Panel/Scientific Reviewer), NSF. (2009 - 2009)

 Reviewer, American Journal Physiology. (2009 - 2009)

 Reviewer, Biophysical Journal. (2009 - 2009)

 Reviewer, Journal of Association for Research in Otolaryngology. (2009 - 2009)

 Reviewer, Hearing Research. (2009 - 2009)

 Member, Finance Committee, Association for Research in Otolarynology. (2013 - 2013)

 Reviewer, Annals of Biomedical Engineering. (2009 - 2009)

 Reviewer, Physical Review E. (2009 - 2009)

 Reviewer, Brain Research. (2009 - 2009)

 Member, American Physical Society. (2010 - 2010)

 Member, Association for Research in Otolaryngology. (2010 - 2010)

 Reviewer, NSF Panels. (2010 - 2010)

 Reviewer, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. (2008 - 2008)

 Reviewer, Biophysical Journal. (2008 - 2008)

 Reviewer, Physical Review Letters. (2008 - 2008)

 Reviewer, Physical Review E. (2008 - 2008)

 Reviewer, Nanotechnology. (2008 - 2008)

 Reviewer, Annals of Biomedical Engineering. (2008 - 2008)

 Reviewer, Brain Research. (2008 - 2008)

 Reviewer, Hearing Research. (2008 - 2008)

 Reviewer, Neuroscience Letters. (2008 - 2008)