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Scholarly Interest Report
         
Mikki (Michelle) Rae Hebl
Professor
Martha and Henry Malcolm Lovett Chair of Psychology; Professor of Psychology and Management
 
e-mail:hebl@rice.edu
 
  • B.A. (1991) Smith College
  • M.S. (1993) Texas A & M University
  • Ph.D. (1997) Dartmouth College
 
Primary Department
   Department of Psychology
Picture
 
Department Affiliations
 
  • Center for the Study of Women, Gender, and Sexuality
  •  
    Websites
     Hebl TedX
     Unconventional Wisdom
     Hebl Homepage
     Hebl Webpage
     Mikki Hebl
     
    Research Areas
     Interactions Between Stigmatized and Nonstigmatized Individuals; Discrimination, Diversity, and Leadership in the Workplace
     
    Social Stigma and Discrimination Research
     My area of research focuses on stigmatization and discrimination, and blends together both a social, interpersonal perspective as well as an organizational perspective. One of my goals is to adequately document the manifestation of such discrimination, particularly in light of the fact that the ways in which people currently express discrimination are dramatically different (e.g., less overt and explicit) from past ways that individuals have expressed discrimination. Only in understanding the expression of current forms of discrimination can we reliably attempt to remediate this discrimination, and that is the second goal of my research. While the studies I have conducted show that discrimination is indeed more subtly prevalent, it is still perversely influential in the impressions people form and the decisions people make.

    I conduct a number of studies adopting a traditional social psychological perspective. These studies tend to examine discrimination and stigmatization within the context of person perceptions and/or ongoing social interactions. In particular, I am interested in the plights that face individuals who engage in "mixed interactions" (those involving both stigmatized and nonstigmatized interactants) such as the increase in interaction avoidance and awkwardness.

    This research focusing on social interaction difficulties is easily extended to the organizational setting, allowing me also to examine the organizational barriers that stigmatized individuals experience. A number of my studies examine whether, how, and to what extent, organizations formally discriminate against members of stigmatized groups. Examinations of organizational influences allow me to take a field study approach, which ties into my traditional social belief that much of the psychological phenomenon we are most interested in can be uniquely accessed only by examining ongoing social interactions. My studies document the prevalence of discrimination against women, mothers who are pregnant or have small children, physically disabled individuals, obese women, and homosexual individuals. One of my strongest findings reveals that displays of formal discrimination are now much rarer but displays of interpersonal discrimination are plentiful. That is, diverse individuals are hired and promoted, but they continue to face discrimination on a day-to-day, less objectively recordable, interpersonal level. This latter type of discrimination may result in implications with the same level of severity as do displays of formal discrimination.

    I also examine how stigmatization within the context of an ongoing social interaction can be remediated. In particular, I conduct studies looking at the strategy of acknowledgment. This strategy shows some promise, particularly for those who have stigmas that are uncontrollable. I am currently examining whether the timing of acknowledgments, or self-disclosures about one?s stigmatized status, may differentially affect attributions and impressions formed of stigmatized individuals. Attempts to understand remediation in ongoing social interactions can also be extended to examine remediation tactics that are used at the organizational level. In particular, I am interested in examining how stigmatized individuals cope with the potential or the actual incidence of discrimination in the workplace. My research examines how the acknowledge their stigmas. From the other side of the organizational interaction, I am also very interested in assessing organizational policies and programs that organizations can adopt easily to remove some of the barriers facing stigmatized individuals. Such policies might include mentoring programs, the establishment of family friendly policies, and diversity workshops.
     
    Hebl's Research Statement
     Mikki Hebl is an applied social psychologist who is part of the I/O program at Rice University.¿ As such, she publishes in both mainstream social psychology and I/O psychology journals.¿ Her research focuses on understanding ¿mixed¿ interactions, or interactions between stigmatized and nonstigmatized individuals (see Goffman, 1963) and this has resulted in two lines of research topics.

    First, she documents how discrimination is manifested within social interactions and organizations.¿ Although¿ people are motivated to stigmatize others for a number of reasons (Heatherton, Kleck, Hebl, & Hull, 2000), she believes that there are simultaneous mounting pressures for them to avoid stigmatizing others and to appear politically correct or socially desirable.¿ These complex forces as well as increases in anti-discrimination legislation have resulted in discrimination now being expressed in less overt and explicit ways than was typical in the past. A great deal of social psychological research has documented this trend toward subtle discrimination through questionnaire and laboratory-based studies which have mainly assessed attitudes.¿ Mikki's research has examined discrimination in the context of actual ongoing interactions in the field within organizations, assessing behaviors that can reflect the dynamic aspect of social stigma. Thus, she and her graduate students¿ have demonstrated more subtle discrimination with obese customers trying to get customer service (Hebl & Mannix, 2003), gay and lesbian applicants applying for jobs (Hebl, Foster, Mannix, & Dovidio, 2003), pregnant women trying to complete job applications (Kazama & Hebl, 2003), and obese patients receiving medical care (Hebl & Xu, 2001).¿

    Second, she examine the ways that stigmatized individuals and organizations can increase targets¿ acceptance in social interactions, entry into organizations, and general interactional or organizational experiences. Her research has focused on remediation both from the stigmatized individual¿s perspective and at the organizational level.¿ At the individual level, she has examined the strategy of acknowledgment, or directly addressing the stigma in an attempt to reduce interactional strain related to suppression motives. At the organizational level,¿ her research has shown that inclusive organizational policies are key to reducing discrimination and/or increasing diversity.¿ Furthermore, there is not just a single policy but many different types of organizational policies that can effect change.¿ She and her students have shown that this includes mentoring programs (Hebl, Lin, Knight, & Tonidandel, under review), advertisement brochures that depict diversity initiatives (Avery, Hernandez, & Hebl, 2003), and family-friendly policies (Foster & Hebl, under review).
     
    Hebl's Research Statement
     Mikki Hebl is an applied social psychologist who is part of the I/O program at Rice University.¿ As such, she publishes in both mainstream social psychology and I/O psychology journals.¿ Her research focuses on understanding ¿mixed¿ interactions, or interactions between stigmatized and nonstigmatized individuals (see Goffman, 1963) and this has resulted in two lines of research topics.

    First, she documents how discrimination is manifested within social interactions and organizations.¿ Although¿ people are motivated to stigmatize others for a number of reasons (Heatherton, Kleck, Hebl, & Hull, 2000), she believes that there are simultaneous mounting pressures for them to avoid stigmatizing others and to appear politically correct or socially desirable.¿ These complex forces as well as increases in anti-discrimination legislation have resulted in discrimination now being expressed in less overt and explicit ways than was typical in the past. A great deal of social psychological research has documented this trend toward subtle discrimination through questionnaire and laboratory-based studies which have mainly assessed attitudes.¿ Mikki's research has examined discrimination in the context of actual ongoing interactions in the field within organizations, assessing behaviors that can reflect the dynamic aspect of social stigma. Thus, she and her graduate students¿ have demonstrated more subtle discrimination with obese customers trying to get customer service (Hebl & Mannix, 2003), gay and lesbian applicants applying for jobs (Hebl, Foster, Mannix, & Dovidio, 2003), pregnant women trying to complete job applications (Kazama & Hebl, 2003), and obese patients receiving medical care (Hebl & Xu, 2001).¿

    Second, she examine the ways that stigmatized individuals and organizations can increase targets¿ acceptance in social interactions, entry into organizations, and general interactional or organizational experiences. Her research has focused on remediation both from the stigmatized individual¿s perspective and at the organizational level.¿ At the individual level, she has examined the strategy of acknowledgment, or directly addressing the stigma in an attempt to reduce interactional strain related to suppression motives. At the organizational level,¿ her research has shown that inclusive organizational policies are key to reducing discrimination and/or increasing diversity.¿ Furthermore, there is not just a single policy but many different types of organizational policies that can effect change.¿ She and her students have shown that this includes mentoring programs (Hebl, Lin, Knight, & Tonidandel, under review), advertisement brochures that depict diversity initiatives (Avery, Hernandez, & Hebl, 2003), and family-friendly policies (Foster & Hebl, under review).
     
    Research Statement
     STATEMENT OF RESEARCH, TEACHING, AND SERVICE
    Michelle (“Mikki”) R. Hebl

    I. RESEARCH

    In 1998, I was hired as an applied social psychologist who would contribute to the Industrial/ Organizational program at Rice University. My research efforts over the past five years have reflected this position, and consequently, I have focused on publishing in both mainstream social psychology (my original training) as well as in applied and I/O journals. Most generally, my research has focused on understanding “mixed” interactions, which are interactions between stigmatized and nonstigmatized individuals (see Goffman, 1963). Within this framework, most of my efforts can be categorized into two different lines of research, each of which I will discuss in some detail.

    1) The Manifestation of Stigma within Social Interactions and Organizations

    My first research goal is to accurately document how discrimination is manifested within social interactions and organizations. Although people may be motivated to stigmatize others for a number of reasons (Heatherton, Kleck, Hebl, & Hull, 2000), there are simultaneous mounting pressures for people to avoid stigmatizing others and for them to appear politically correct or socially desirable. These complex forces as well as increases in anti-discrimination legislation have resulted in discrimination now being expressed in less overt and explicit ways than was typical in the past. A great deal of social psychological research has documented this trend toward subtle discrimination through questionnaire and laboratory-based studies which have mainly assessed attitudes. My own research has examined discrimination in the context of actual ongoing interactions in the field within organizations, assessing behaviors that can reflect the dynamic aspect of social stigma. Thus, I have demonstrated more subtle discrimination with obese customers trying to get customer service (Hebl & Mannix, 2003), gay and lesbian applicants applying for jobs (Hebl, Foster, Mannix, & Dovidio, 2003), pregnant women trying to complete job applications (Kazama & Hebl, 2003), and obese patients receiving medical care (Hebl & Xu, 2001).

    In these studies, we have found that stigmatizers tend to display what our laboratory refers to as "interpersonal discrimination" (e.g., decreased eye contact, terminated interactions, increased awkwardness) rather than "formal discrimination" (e.g., decreased hiring rates, refusal to serve). Formal discrimination is more overt and prohibited by laws, whereas interpersonal discrimination is more subtle and has no attached legislation or policies. On the one hand, the absence of formal discrimination suggests that laws and mandates may be successful at changing behaviors and enforcing egalitarianism in organizations. On the other hand, our findings on interpersonal discrimination suggests that discrimination is alive and well, but simply reformulated. Despite the fact that discrimination is more subtly displayed in current society, it is still perversely influential in the impressions people form and the decisions people make regarding stigmatized individuals. That is, stigmatized individuals may actually be hired and promoted more frequently today than in the past, but they continue to face discrimination on a day-to-day, interpersonal level (King, Hebl, George, & Matusik, 2003). Such seemingly small amounts of discrimination, or "molehills", as Virginia Valian (2000) describes, can result in accumulated "mountains" of disadvantage for stigmatized individuals (see also Martell, Lane, & Emrich, 1996).

    My research also has shown consistently that stigmatized targets are usually keenly aware of the discrimination to which they are subjected. In the studies mentioned previously, targets’ ratings of discrimination closely matched those of independent coders (always blind to study hypotheses) who listened to audiotapes of the interactions and/or observers who witnessed interactions firsthand. One partial exception to this was our study in which overweight men did identify discrimination of physicians but overweight women did not (Hebl, Xu, & Mason, 2002). Consistent with Crosby’s (1982) research, these women and certain other stigmatized individuals might strategically choose to overlook or deny the discrimination they receive. Organizational-level research that I have conducted provides an important reason why they might do this (King, Hebl, George et al., 2003). Specifically, we found that perceiving that discrimination takes place, whether one personally experiences it or views it within one’s organization, is negatively related to subjective well-being and interpersonal behaviors, and positively related to intentions to quit.


    A second theme of my research is to examine the ways that stigmatized individuals and organizations can increase targets’ acceptance in social interactions, entry into organizations, and general interactional or organizational experiences. My research has focused on remediation both from the stigmatized individual’s perspective and at the organizational level and I will discuss both separately.

    2a) Individual Strategies to Remediate Stigmatization

    As an applied psychologist, I am interested in not only understanding the causes of discrimination but also alternative solutions to the problems associated with stigmatization. At the individual-level, I have examined the strategy of acknowledgment, and this has shown some promise for improving the plight of stigmatized individuals. Stigmatizers and targets come to mixed interactions with stigma-related, heightened tensions and challenges that may deeply influence their interactions and outcomes (e.g., Hebl, Heatherton, & Tickle, 2000). Thought suppression becomes a goal for most nonstigmatized individuals, as certain topics and words become taboo. Consonant with Wegner's (1994) thought suppression research, however, failures are common as ironic processes increase – not decrease – stigma-related thoughts. As a consequence, stigmatizers may expend a great deal of their resources monitoring their verbal behaviors, but much less energy monitoring their nonverbal and more interpersonally-based reactions. Congruent with this, my research has shown that stigmatizers smile and nod less; terminate the interaction sooner; and display less warmth, friendliness, and supportiveness (see studies on interpersonal discrimination listed previously). Similarly, their suppression of thoughts and behaviors often backfires (perhaps because of cognitive depletion, allocation of attention elsewhere, or thought suppression rebound) and stigmatized individuals blurt out a reference to the very topic that they tried so hard to avoid. My current research is substantiating that these processes occur and other research has shown preliminary evidence for this (e.g., Macrae, Bodenhausen, Milne, & Jetten, 1994).

    One norm that prevails in our society is the belief that acknowledgments about a stigma are relegated to those who possess the stigma and it is not appropriate (and sometimes even against the law) for stigmatizers to acknowledge the stigma. To release stigmatizers from a state of thought suppression, then, one strategy that targets might adopt is to acknowledge their stigmatizing characteristic. For example, a physically disabled individual might say, "I use a wheelchair” (see Hebl & Kleck, 2000). From a theoretical standpoint, such statements reduce the cognitive load that stigmatizers experience as a result of trying to suppress their thoughts and related behaviors. They are freed, so to speak. And by reducing suppression, acknowledgments may help targets with overt stigmas "break through" more quickly or be viewed with something other than disdain, pity, and contempt. In my acknowledgment research, I have found that statements made by the target focusing on the uncontrollability of a stigma particularly increase stigmatizers' positive reactions. (Hebl, 1997; Hebl & Kleck, 2002). I have conducted a few studies examining gay and lesbian employees’ “coming-out” experiences and this research reveals the challenges that reside for these stigmatized targets. In free response items at the end of the studies, many of these individuals specifically and consistently indicate that they do not know when and how they should acknowledge their sexual orientation. My research reveals that gay and lesbian employees accrue personal benefits when they acknowledge immediately; however, those to whom they acknowledge prefer them to wait a period of time before disclosing (King, Reilly, Hebl, & Griffith, 2003). My research also reveals that if gay and lesbian employees want to have a good “coming-out” experience, they should acknowledge to accepting co-workers. That is, disclosure in the work places is related favorably to a number of job outcomes (increased job satisfaction, decreased job stress), but that this finding is fully mediated by co-workers’ reactions (Griffith & Hebl, 2002).

    2b) Organizational Strategies to Increase Diversity

    Given that discrimination continues to emerge in organizational contexts, my research has also focused on organizational policies that reduce discrimination and/or increase diversity. While these two goals are not necessarily identical, I posit that they are strongly correlated. What my research has shown is that inclusive organizational policies are key to reducing discrimination and/or increasing diversity. Furthermore, there is not just a single policy but many different types of organizational policies that can effect change.

    First, for example, organizations can offer formal mentoring programs whereby individuals prone to stigma might be able to find a mentor with similar characteristics (Hebl, Knight, Tonidandel, & Lin, 2003). Although my research has shown that there are not necessarily increases in tangible resources (e.g., salaries, promotions), “like-mentors” do enact significant increases in psychosocial benefits relative to dissimilar-mentors (or no mentors). Second, my research has shown that organizations that offer family-friendly policies are much more attractive to women entering the workforce than organizations that do not offer such policies (Foster & Hebl, 2003). In this policy-capturing study, we found that the availability of family friendly policies was one of the main cues that attract women to potential employment situations. To follow-up on this research, my student (Jessica Foster) and I received a grant from the Department of Health and Human Services to examine how daycare programs, including on-site organizational daycare, influences mothers’ stress levels in the workplace. Additionally, another one of my students (Eden King) and I are currently conducting another follow-up study to ensure that women are not only more attracted to an organization that has family-friendly policies but are also more likely to remain and succeed within them as a function of taking advantages of family-friendly policies. Third, organizations can attract increased diversity in their applicants by strategically designing advertisement brochures that depict members from diverse groups (Avery, Hernandez, & Hebl, in press). We found that Black and Hispanic individuals were significantly more attracted to organizations that had Black or Hispanic individuals depicted in company advertisements. White individuals were not affected by the depiction of increased diversity; thus, organizations that promote diversity in their advertisements seem to be engaging in a win-win situation for stigmatized and nonstigmatized individuals. Fourth and finally, formal affirmative action policies increase diversity. However, many employees, particularly those who are nonbeneficiaries, have very negative reactions to such policies. We found that the acceptance of such policies is dramatically increased if a rationale is included not only for why such policies will help beneficiaries but also why they will help nonbeneficiaries (Knight & Hebl, in press). Given more comprehensive statements, nonbeneficiaries are generally accepting of such policies. I plan to summarize all of these successful organizational attempts in the near future by writing a review piece for an organizational journal.

    Additional Research

    In addition to examining the manifestation and remediation of stigma, there are three related but somewhat different areas in which I also conduct research. I am firmly committed to conducting research on gender-related issues that attempt to put women at equal footing with men. This research has been guided largely by Alice Eagly’s social role theory (see Eagly & Steffen, 1984). Whether it be in identifying ways that men and women differentially accrue their bases of self-esteem (Wood, Christensen, Hebl & Rothgerber, 1997), ways that women in the workplace can be assisted by policies (Foster & Hebl, 2003), or ways in which they continue to be hurt by discrimination (King, Hebl, George et al., 2003), my laboratory focuses on ways to promote egalitarianism and equal placement of men and women into societal roles.

    Additionally, with regard to my research on obesity, I am particularly interested in examining why Black women do not stigmatize obesity. Some of my earliest research focused on the finding that White women stigmatize obesity while Black women do not (Hebl & Heatheron, 1997). I have followed up this finding with two additional studies. The first one replicates Fredrickson, Roberts, Noll, Quinn, and Twenge’s (1998) study. We posited that consistent with our earlier findings, Black women would not feel self-objectified in a bathing suit. As a secondary goal, we also examined men and corrected for a methodological problem in Fredrickson’s study. Initially suprising to us was the fact that our results revealed that Black women (and men too) were just as negatively affected as were White women (Hebl, King, & Lin, 2003). We argue that certain situations may make all individuals (Black or White, man or woman) vulnerable to their appearance, and that in this case, weight had become very personalized and difficult to avoid. In an attempt to see if we could demonstrate shifting responses of Black women, we manipulated social norms (Hebl & King, 2003). When Black women were told that Black women tended to be heavier than White women or were told nothing, they did not stigmatize obesity. However, when they were told that Black women were actually thinner than White women, they began to stigmatize obesity. Although typically able to deflect societal pressures to be thin, when Black women believe that they might attain ideals of thinness, they too are subject to its evaluative consequences.

    Finally, I have conducted a number of studies on leadership-related issues. This focus was originally in service of examining how women might attain equal presence with men in organizations, even at the highest levels. I found, consistent with Eagly and Karau’s (1991) research, that men are significantly more likely to be chosen as leaders than women in initially leaderless, mixed-sex groups. This effect was moderated by the type of leader (social vs. task-oriented) required for the group (Hebl, 1994). I also became interested in other aspects of leadership and as a result, I have examined leadership succession (Worchel, Jenner, & Hebl, 1998) and am currently involved in a four-year, ongoing collaboration with Michael West at the University of Aston. We are examining the types of influence CEO’s exert on their employees and are finding evidence that the extent to which these leaders engage in simple processes (e.g., display of positive emotions, reflections, particular choices in wording) can have enormous impacts on their followers (Foster, Hebl, & West, 2003; Kazama, Dawson, Foster, Hebl, & West, 2003; Kazama, Foster, Hebl, West, & Dawson, 2003).

    Future Research

    In my future research endeavors, I will continue to investigate mixed interaction research in an attempt to continue understanding and trying to successfully remediate discrimination and increase diversity. I have recently written two theoretical pieces, the first of which specifically articulates a framework for the dynamics involved in mixed interactions (Hebl & Dovidio, 2003). This specifies the dynamic processes that both stigmatizers and targets undergo during the pre-interaction as well as the interaction phase, and how these processes influence behavioral outcomes and interaction termination. The second paper is also a dual-perspective that specifies the role that stigma research can play at the individual, group, and organizational level (Hebl, King, & Knight, 2003). We particularly encourage organizational researchers to conduct stigma-related research and indicate a framework by which they might test stigma. In both of these papers, I have specified a number of future research possibilities, and I look forward to personally conducting research on some of these ideas.



    II. TEACHING

    I am very proud of my identity as a teacher, and of having won a number of campus-wide teaching awards. Simply put, I consider teaching students about psychology and research findings to be an extremely rewarding enterprise. During my time at Rice University, I have taught 12 undergraduate courses. I have taught Research Methods three times, which is one of the most intensive teaching assignments in the department (both it and statistics are 4-credit classes as opposed to all others which are 3-credit assignments). I have also taught Social Psychology three times and The Psychology of Gender four times, both of which now have enrollments exceeding 120 despite the fact that I teach them at 8 a.m. I also chose to take on two additional seminar courses in my second year and developed them in conjunction with three other interdisciplinary professors. These seminars were funded by a grant from Hewlett Packard and served as a trial in offering freshmen the opportunity to take small-class seminars early in their academic careers. Our course focused on an interdisciplinary approach to the study of Persuasion. Finally, last year, I offered an Advanced I/O undergraduate course for students who planned to go to graduate school in I/O psychology – this fall, one student will be attending George Mason University and two students plan to apply next year. This coming semester, I will be preparing for a new course, Introduction to I/O Psychology, the precursor to Advanced I/O for undergraduates.

    In addition to these formal teaching requirements, I have also developed a Monday evening class for research assistants. Rather than just potentially introduce them to a single research study and risk the possibility that they might not get the breadth that I want them to in a research assistantship position, I hold a session on Monday evenings where we present and/or talk about research ideas, conceptualize studies, prepare for field studies, discuss professional issues, develop resumes, discuss graduate school, read personal statements, and discuss the general importance of research. While this course is not a formal one, I have held it each semester I have been at Rice and believe it is, in large part, why a solid number (19) of my former research assistants are now in graduate school (see http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~hebl/alumni.html). Their placement into graduate school is probably my most successful teaching accomplishment – it gives me pride to know that I have helped inspire others to fall in love with psychology and pursue academics as a career.

    I have also developed and taught three graduate courses during my time at Rice: Leadership, Professional Issues, and Foundations of I/O Psychology. It has been a pleasure teaching graduate students and I particularly enjoy teaching the Professional Issues class, where I require students to apply for a grant and submit to me a job application, complete with a job description, cover letter, vitae, research statement, publications, and teaching portfolio. It has been a delight to watch some of the students get funding and many of them comment that the class eased their actual application experience. I look with enthusiasm to this coming semester, when I will be teaching this course again.

    In addition to my formal teaching requirements, I have mentored a very large number of students at Rice University, both undergraduate and graduate. This is one of the most challenging and rewarding experiences that I have had in my life. There is at least one undergraduate or graduate student on the majority of publications that I have had (or have under review) since taking the job at Rice, and this is a testimony that I take mentoring seriously and am motivated to help our students develop and succeed. I have listed these individuals on my vitae and am humbled by their excellent contributions. Certainly one of my proudest mentoring moments, by far, has been watching my first Ph.D. student accept a tenure-track faculty position in I/O psychology at Purdue University for the coming fall.

    I am also heavily involved in the teaching community within the psychology profession. I have co-edited a handbook for teaching psychology, I have published and/or have under review five articles in the Teaching of Psychology journal, I have served as a keynote speaker for local teaching conferences, and I attend the National Institute of the Teaching of Psychology (NITOP) as frequently as I am able.



    III. SERVICE

    Because diversity initiatives are profoundly important to me, it has been very rewarding for me to serve on the Provost Fellowship Committee for the past three years. This committee attempts to recruit graduate students to Rice University who are from underrepresented backgrounds. I have helped identify and recruit five of such students for our own Psychology Department, four of whom are doing well in our program. The fifth student will be my new graduate student this fall and I look forward to her arrival. In addition to working on this diversity initiative, I have also participated in Vision (a multicultural weekend for prospective undergraduate students), been a regular speaker at both the alliances for graduate education in the professoriate (AGEP) and the diversity recruitment of Xavier students to Rice Graduate Programs, and have served as a mentor the Melon Scholar Program.

    I am also been involved in a number of other committees at Rice University. Knowing that I am a bit of a running nut, the athletic department asked me to speak at their athletic banquet in my second year at Rice University. This was followed by requests to serve on the Rice University Athletics Committee, which I did for one year, and I am now part of the Athletic Admission Sub-committee of Admissions. I have also regularly assisted the athletic department at recruitment weekends and dinners, and by meeting monthly with at least one prospective Rice undergraduate athlete who is interested in pursuing psychology and/or meeting with a faculty member.

    Moreover, I have given service to psychology at Rice University. I have served on the undergraduate psychology committee, presented graduate student training workshops, been a majors day representative, participated as the colloquium committee chair and co-chair, and served on the graduate recruitment committee. For one year, I was also on the executive committee of the Houston Area Industrial/Organizational Psychology (HAIOP) Association.

    Finally, I have assisted in two other ways. First, I was a very involved Faculty Associate of Sid Richardson at Rice University during my first few years at Rice, and for one year, I was their divisional advisor. Second, I am the faculty committee member of the Student Center Advisory Committee that meets once a month to discuss student needs.

    Regarding professional service, I am active in both the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology and in social psychology. For several years, I served as a reviewer for the annual SIOP conference and was just selected to serve as the Co-chair of the LBTG Adhoc Committee for the upcoming year. I also serve as an adhoc reviewer for SIOP’s premiere journal, JAP, and I write at least one review per month. Furthermore, I have remained an active member of several social and organizational societies, and attend conferences regularly and am asked to review for a large number of research journals.



     
    Research Statement
     STATEMENT OF RESEARCH, TEACHING, AND SERVICE
    Michelle (“Mikki”) R. Hebl

    I. RESEARCH

    In 1998, I was hired as an applied social psychologist who would contribute to the Industrial/ Organizational program at Rice University. My research efforts over the past five years have reflected this position, and consequently, I have focused on publishing in both mainstream social psychology (my original training) as well as in applied and I/O journals. Most generally, my research has focused on understanding “mixed” interactions, which are interactions between stigmatized and nonstigmatized individuals (see Goffman, 1963). Within this framework, most of my efforts can be categorized into two different lines of research, each of which I will discuss in some detail.

    1) The Manifestation of Stigma within Social Interactions and Organizations

    My first research goal is to accurately document how discrimination is manifested within social interactions and organizations. Although people may be motivated to stigmatize others for a number of reasons (Heatherton, Kleck, Hebl, & Hull, 2000), there are simultaneous mounting pressures for people to avoid stigmatizing others and for them to appear politically correct or socially desirable. These complex forces as well as increases in anti-discrimination legislation have resulted in discrimination now being expressed in less overt and explicit ways than was typical in the past. A great deal of social psychological research has documented this trend toward subtle discrimination through questionnaire and laboratory-based studies which have mainly assessed attitudes. My own research has examined discrimination in the context of actual ongoing interactions in the field within organizations, assessing behaviors that can reflect the dynamic aspect of social stigma. Thus, I have demonstrated more subtle discrimination with obese customers trying to get customer service (Hebl & Mannix, 2003), gay and lesbian applicants applying for jobs (Hebl, Foster, Mannix, & Dovidio, 2003), pregnant women trying to complete job applications (Kazama & Hebl, 2003), and obese patients receiving medical care (Hebl & Xu, 2001).

    In these studies, we have found that stigmatizers tend to display what our laboratory refers to as "interpersonal discrimination" (e.g., decreased eye contact, terminated interactions, increased awkwardness) rather than "formal discrimination" (e.g., decreased hiring rates, refusal to serve). Formal discrimination is more overt and prohibited by laws, whereas interpersonal discrimination is more subtle and has no attached legislation or policies. On the one hand, the absence of formal discrimination suggests that laws and mandates may be successful at changing behaviors and enforcing egalitarianism in organizations. On the other hand, our findings on interpersonal discrimination suggests that discrimination is alive and well, but simply reformulated. Despite the fact that discrimination is more subtly displayed in current society, it is still perversely influential in the impressions people form and the decisions people make regarding stigmatized individuals. That is, stigmatized individuals may actually be hired and promoted more frequently today than in the past, but they continue to face discrimination on a day-to-day, interpersonal level (King, Hebl, George, & Matusik, 2003). Such seemingly small amounts of discrimination, or "molehills", as Virginia Valian (2000) describes, can result in accumulated "mountains" of disadvantage for stigmatized individuals (see also Martell, Lane, & Emrich, 1996).

    My research also has shown consistently that stigmatized targets are usually keenly aware of the discrimination to which they are subjected. In the studies mentioned previously, targets’ ratings of discrimination closely matched those of independent coders (always blind to study hypotheses) who listened to audiotapes of the interactions and/or observers who witnessed interactions firsthand. One partial exception to this was our study in which overweight men did identify discrimination of physicians but overweight women did not (Hebl, Xu, & Mason, 2002). Consistent with Crosby’s (1982) research, these women and certain other stigmatized individuals might strategically choose to overlook or deny the discrimination they receive. Organizational-level research that I have conducted provides an important reason why they might do this (King, Hebl, George et al., 2003). Specifically, we found that perceiving that discrimination takes place, whether one personally experiences it or views it within one’s organization, is negatively related to subjective well-being and interpersonal behaviors, and positively related to intentions to quit.


    A second theme of my research is to examine the ways that stigmatized individuals and organizations can increase targets’ acceptance in social interactions, entry into organizations, and general interactional or organizational experiences. My research has focused on remediation both from the stigmatized individual’s perspective and at the organizational level and I will discuss both separately.

    2a) Individual Strategies to Remediate Stigmatization

    As an applied psychologist, I am interested in not only understanding the causes of discrimination but also alternative solutions to the problems associated with stigmatization. At the individual-level, I have examined the strategy of acknowledgment, and this has shown some promise for improving the plight of stigmatized individuals. Stigmatizers and targets come to mixed interactions with stigma-related, heightened tensions and challenges that may deeply influence their interactions and outcomes (e.g., Hebl, Heatherton, & Tickle, 2000). Thought suppression becomes a goal for most nonstigmatized individuals, as certain topics and words become taboo. Consonant with Wegner's (1994) thought suppression research, however, failures are common as ironic processes increase – not decrease – stigma-related thoughts. As a consequence, stigmatizers may expend a great deal of their resources monitoring their verbal behaviors, but much less energy monitoring their nonverbal and more interpersonally-based reactions. Congruent with this, my research has shown that stigmatizers smile and nod less; terminate the interaction sooner; and display less warmth, friendliness, and supportiveness (see studies on interpersonal discrimination listed previously). Similarly, their suppression of thoughts and behaviors often backfires (perhaps because of cognitive depletion, allocation of attention elsewhere, or thought suppression rebound) and stigmatized individuals blurt out a reference to the very topic that they tried so hard to avoid. My current research is substantiating that these processes occur and other research has shown preliminary evidence for this (e.g., Macrae, Bodenhausen, Milne, & Jetten, 1994).

    One norm that prevails in our society is the belief that acknowledgments about a stigma are relegated to those who possess the stigma and it is not appropriate (and sometimes even against the law) for stigmatizers to acknowledge the stigma. To release stigmatizers from a state of thought suppression, then, one strategy that targets might adopt is to acknowledge their stigmatizing characteristic. For example, a physically disabled individual might say, "I use a wheelchair” (see Hebl & Kleck, 2000). From a theoretical standpoint, such statements reduce the cognitive load that stigmatizers experience as a result of trying to suppress their thoughts and related behaviors. They are freed, so to speak. And by reducing suppression, acknowledgments may help targets with overt stigmas "break through" more quickly or be viewed with something other than disdain, pity, and contempt. In my acknowledgment research, I have found that statements made by the target focusing on the uncontrollability of a stigma particularly increase stigmatizers' positive reactions. (Hebl, 1997; Hebl & Kleck, 2002). I have conducted a few studies examining gay and lesbian employees’ “coming-out” experiences and this research reveals the challenges that reside for these stigmatized targets. In free response items at the end of the studies, many of these individuals specifically and consistently indicate that they do not know when and how they should acknowledge their sexual orientation. My research reveals that gay and lesbian employees accrue personal benefits when they acknowledge immediately; however, those to whom they acknowledge prefer them to wait a period of time before disclosing (King, Reilly, Hebl, & Griffith, 2003). My research also reveals that if gay and lesbian employees want to have a good “coming-out” experience, they should acknowledge to accepting co-workers. That is, disclosure in the work places is related favorably to a number of job outcomes (increased job satisfaction, decreased job stress), but that this finding is fully mediated by co-workers’ reactions (Griffith & Hebl, 2002).

    2b) Organizational Strategies to Increase Diversity

    Given that discrimination continues to emerge in organizational contexts, my research has also focused on organizational policies that reduce discrimination and/or increase diversity. While these two goals are not necessarily identical, I posit that they are strongly correlated. What my research has shown is that inclusive organizational policies are key to reducing discrimination and/or increasing diversity. Furthermore, there is not just a single policy but many different types of organizational policies that can effect change.

    First, for example, organizations can offer formal mentoring programs whereby individuals prone to stigma might be able to find a mentor with similar characteristics (Hebl, Knight, Tonidandel, & Lin, 2003). Although my research has shown that there are not necessarily increases in tangible resources (e.g., salaries, promotions), “like-mentors” do enact significant increases in psychosocial benefits relative to dissimilar-mentors (or no mentors). Second, my research has shown that organizations that offer family-friendly policies are much more attractive to women entering the workforce than organizations that do not offer such policies (Foster & Hebl, 2003). In this policy-capturing study, we found that the availability of family friendly policies was one of the main cues that attract women to potential employment situations. To follow-up on this research, my student (Jessica Foster) and I received a grant from the Department of Health and Human Services to examine how daycare programs, including on-site organizational daycare, influences mothers’ stress levels in the workplace. Additionally, another one of my students (Eden King) and I are currently conducting another follow-up study to ensure that women are not only more attracted to an organization that has family-friendly policies but are also more likely to remain and succeed within them as a function of taking advantages of family-friendly policies. Third, organizations can attract increased diversity in their applicants by strategically designing advertisement brochures that depict members from diverse groups (Avery, Hernandez, & Hebl, in press). We found that Black and Hispanic individuals were significantly more attracted to organizations that had Black or Hispanic individuals depicted in company advertisements. White individuals were not affected by the depiction of increased diversity; thus, organizations that promote diversity in their advertisements seem to be engaging in a win-win situation for stigmatized and nonstigmatized individuals. Fourth and finally, formal affirmative action policies increase diversity. However, many employees, particularly those who are nonbeneficiaries, have very negative reactions to such policies. We found that the acceptance of such policies is dramatically increased if a rationale is included not only for why such policies will help beneficiaries but also why they will help nonbeneficiaries (Knight & Hebl, in press). Given more comprehensive statements, nonbeneficiaries are generally accepting of such policies. I plan to summarize all of these successful organizational attempts in the near future by writing a review piece for an organizational journal.

    Additional Research

    In addition to examining the manifestation and remediation of stigma, there are three related but somewhat different areas in which I also conduct research. I am firmly committed to conducting research on gender-related issues that attempt to put women at equal footing with men. This research has been guided largely by Alice Eagly’s social role theory (see Eagly & Steffen, 1984). Whether it be in identifying ways that men and women differentially accrue their bases of self-esteem (Wood, Christensen, Hebl & Rothgerber, 1997), ways that women in the workplace can be assisted by policies (Foster & Hebl, 2003), or ways in which they continue to be hurt by discrimination (King, Hebl, George et al., 2003), my laboratory focuses on ways to promote egalitarianism and equal placement of men and women into societal roles.

    Additionally, with regard to my research on obesity, I am particularly interested in examining why Black women do not stigmatize obesity. Some of my earliest research focused on the finding that White women stigmatize obesity while Black women do not (Hebl & Heatheron, 1997). I have followed up this finding with two additional studies. The first one replicates Fredrickson, Roberts, Noll, Quinn, and Twenge’s (1998) study. We posited that consistent with our earlier findings, Black women would not feel self-objectified in a bathing suit. As a secondary goal, we also examined men and corrected for a methodological problem in Fredrickson’s study. Initially suprising to us was the fact that our results revealed that Black women (and men too) were just as negatively affected as were White women (Hebl, King, & Lin, 2003). We argue that certain situations may make all individuals (Black or White, man or woman) vulnerable to their appearance, and that in this case, weight had become very personalized and difficult to avoid. In an attempt to see if we could demonstrate shifting responses of Black women, we manipulated social norms (Hebl & King, 2003). When Black women were told that Black women tended to be heavier than White women or were told nothing, they did not stigmatize obesity. However, when they were told that Black women were actually thinner than White women, they began to stigmatize obesity. Although typically able to deflect societal pressures to be thin, when Black women believe that they might attain ideals of thinness, they too are subject to its evaluative consequences.

    Finally, I have conducted a number of studies on leadership-related issues. This focus was originally in service of examining how women might attain equal presence with men in organizations, even at the highest levels. I found, consistent with Eagly and Karau’s (1991) research, that men are significantly more likely to be chosen as leaders than women in initially leaderless, mixed-sex groups. This effect was moderated by the type of leader (social vs. task-oriented) required for the group (Hebl, 1994). I also became interested in other aspects of leadership and as a result, I have examined leadership succession (Worchel, Jenner, & Hebl, 1998) and am currently involved in a four-year, ongoing collaboration with Michael West at the University of Aston. We are examining the types of influence CEO’s exert on their employees and are finding evidence that the extent to which these leaders engage in simple processes (e.g., display of positive emotions, reflections, particular choices in wording) can have enormous impacts on their followers (Foster, Hebl, & West, 2003; Kazama, Dawson, Foster, Hebl, & West, 2003; Kazama, Foster, Hebl, West, & Dawson, 2003).

    Future Research

    In my future research endeavors, I will continue to investigate mixed interaction research in an attempt to continue understanding and trying to successfully remediate discrimination and increase diversity. I have recently written two theoretical pieces, the first of which specifically articulates a framework for the dynamics involved in mixed interactions (Hebl & Dovidio, 2003). This specifies the dynamic processes that both stigmatizers and targets undergo during the pre-interaction as well as the interaction phase, and how these processes influence behavioral outcomes and interaction termination. The second paper is also a dual-perspective that specifies the role that stigma research can play at the individual, group, and organizational level (Hebl, King, & Knight, 2003). We particularly encourage organizational researchers to conduct stigma-related research and indicate a framework by which they might test stigma. In both of these papers, I have specified a number of future research possibilities, and I look forward to personally conducting research on some of these ideas.



    II. TEACHING

    I am very proud of my identity as a teacher, and of having won a number of campus-wide teaching awards. Simply put, I consider teaching students about psychology and research findings to be an extremely rewarding enterprise. During my time at Rice University, I have taught 12 undergraduate courses. I have taught Research Methods three times, which is one of the most intensive teaching assignments in the department (both it and statistics are 4-credit classes as opposed to all others which are 3-credit assignments). I have also taught Social Psychology three times and The Psychology of Gender four times, both of which now have enrollments exceeding 120 despite the fact that I teach them at 8 a.m. I also chose to take on two additional seminar courses in my second year and developed them in conjunction with three other interdisciplinary professors. These seminars were funded by a grant from Hewlett Packard and served as a trial in offering freshmen the opportunity to take small-class seminars early in their academic careers. Our course focused on an interdisciplinary approach to the study of Persuasion. Finally, last year, I offered an Advanced I/O undergraduate course for students who planned to go to graduate school in I/O psychology – this fall, one student will be attending George Mason University and two students plan to apply next year. This coming semester, I will be preparing for a new course, Introduction to I/O Psychology, the precursor to Advanced I/O for undergraduates.

    In addition to these formal teaching requirements, I have also developed a Monday evening class for research assistants. Rather than just potentially introduce them to a single research study and risk the possibility that they might not get the breadth that I want them to in a research assistantship position, I hold a session on Monday evenings where we present and/or talk about research ideas, conceptualize studies, prepare for field studies, discuss professional issues, develop resumes, discuss graduate school, read personal statements, and discuss the general importance of research. While this course is not a formal one, I have held it each semester I have been at Rice and believe it is, in large part, why a solid number (19) of my former research assistants are now in graduate school (see http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~hebl/alumni.html). Their placement into graduate school is probably my most successful teaching accomplishment – it gives me pride to know that I have helped inspire others to fall in love with psychology and pursue academics as a career.

    I have also developed and taught three graduate courses during my time at Rice: Leadership, Professional Issues, and Foundations of I/O Psychology. It has been a pleasure teaching graduate students and I particularly enjoy teaching the Professional Issues class, where I require students to apply for a grant and submit to me a job application, complete with a job description, cover letter, vitae, research statement, publications, and teaching portfolio. It has been a delight to watch some of the students get funding and many of them comment that the class eased their actual application experience. I look with enthusiasm to this coming semester, when I will be teaching this course again.

    In addition to my formal teaching requirements, I have mentored a very large number of students at Rice University, both undergraduate and graduate. This is one of the most challenging and rewarding experiences that I have had in my life. There is at least one undergraduate or graduate student on the majority of publications that I have had (or have under review) since taking the job at Rice, and this is a testimony that I take mentoring seriously and am motivated to help our students develop and succeed. I have listed these individuals on my vitae and am humbled by their excellent contributions. Certainly one of my proudest mentoring moments, by far, has been watching my first Ph.D. student accept a tenure-track faculty position in I/O psychology at Purdue University for the coming fall.

    I am also heavily involved in the teaching community within the psychology profession. I have co-edited a handbook for teaching psychology, I have published and/or have under review five articles in the Teaching of Psychology journal, I have served as a keynote speaker for local teaching conferences, and I attend the National Institute of the Teaching of Psychology (NITOP) as frequently as I am able.



    III. SERVICE

    Because diversity initiatives are profoundly important to me, it has been very rewarding for me to serve on the Provost Fellowship Committee for the past three years. This committee attempts to recruit graduate students to Rice University who are from underrepresented backgrounds. I have helped identify and recruit five of such students for our own Psychology Department, four of whom are doing well in our program. The fifth student will be my new graduate student this fall and I look forward to her arrival. In addition to working on this diversity initiative, I have also participated in Vision (a multicultural weekend for prospective undergraduate students), been a regular speaker at both the alliances for graduate education in the professoriate (AGEP) and the diversity recruitment of Xavier students to Rice Graduate Programs, and have served as a mentor the Melon Scholar Program.

    I am also been involved in a number of other committees at Rice University. Knowing that I am a bit of a running nut, the athletic department asked me to speak at their athletic banquet in my second year at Rice University. This was followed by requests to serve on the Rice University Athletics Committee, which I did for one year, and I am now part of the Athletic Admission Sub-committee of Admissions. I have also regularly assisted the athletic department at recruitment weekends and dinners, and by meeting monthly with at least one prospective Rice undergraduate athlete who is interested in pursuing psychology and/or meeting with a faculty member.

    Moreover, I have given service to psychology at Rice University. I have served on the undergraduate psychology committee, presented graduate student training workshops, been a majors day representative, participated as the colloquium committee chair and co-chair, and served on the graduate recruitment committee. For one year, I was also on the executive committee of the Houston Area Industrial/Organizational Psychology (HAIOP) Association.

    Finally, I have assisted in two other ways. First, I was a very involved Faculty Associate of Sid Richardson at Rice University during my first few years at Rice, and for one year, I was their divisional advisor. Second, I am the faculty committee member of the Student Center Advisory Committee that meets once a month to discuss student needs.

    Regarding professional service, I am active in both the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology and in social psychology. For several years, I served as a reviewer for the annual SIOP conference and was just selected to serve as the Co-chair of the LBTG Adhoc Committee for the upcoming year. I also serve as an adhoc reviewer for SIOP’s premiere journal, JAP, and I write at least one review per month. Furthermore, I have remained an active member of several social and organizational societies, and attend conferences regularly and am asked to review for a large number of research journals.



     
    Teaching Areas
     Social Psychology, I/O Psychology, Psychology of Gender, Research Methods, Leadership, Professional Issues, Diversity
     
    Selected Publications
     Abstracts
     

    Shelton, N., Hebl, M., Richeson, J., & Dovidio, J. F. "Misunderstandings in interracial interactions." Intergroup misunderstandings: Impact of divergent social realities (2006) In Press

     
     Refereed articles
     

    Bachman, K. R. O., Martinez, L. R., Ruggs, E. N., Rinehart, J., & Hebl, M. (2015). Policies that make a difference: Bridging gender equity and the work-family gap in academia. Gender in Management, 30 Iss 5 pp. 414 – 426

     
     

    Cheung, H. K., Lindsey, A., King, E., & Hebl, M. (2015). Beyond Sex: Exploring the effects of femininity and masculinity on women’s use of influence tactics. Gender in Management: An International Journal.

     
     

    Colella, A., Hebl, M., & King, E. B. (2015). One hundred years of discrimination research in JAP: A sobering synopsis. Journal of Applied Psychology.

     
     

    Fa-Kaji, N., Nguyen, L., Hebl, M., & Skorinko, J. (2015). Is “bow” for an arrow or for hair? A classroom demonstration on gender differences in interpreting ambiguous information. Teaching of Psychology. 

     
     

    Hernandez, M., Avery, D. R., Tonidandel, S., Hebl, M., McKay, P., & Smith, A. (2015). The role of proximal social contexts: Assessing stigma-by-association effects on leader appraisals. Journal of Applied Psychology

     
     

    Lindsey, A., King, E., Cheung, H., Hebl, M., Lynch, S., & Mancini, V. (in press). When do women respond against discrimination? Exploring factors of subtlety, form, and focus. Journal of Applied Social Psychology.

     
     

    Lyons, B., Martinez, L., Ruggs, E., Hebl, M., Ryan, A. M., O’Brien, K., & Roebuck, A., (2015). To say or not to say: Different strategies of acknowledging a visible disability. Journal of Management.

     
     

    Martinez, L., & Hebl, M. (in press). Surviving or thriving? Childhood cancer survivors' identity disclosures in the workplace. Journal of Cancer Survivorship.

     
     

    Martinez, L., White, C., Shapiro, J., & Hebl, M. (2015). Selection BIAS: Stereotypes and discrimination related to having a history of cancer. Journal of Applied Psychology

     
     

    O’Brien, K., & Hebl, M. (in press). Great expectations in academia: Realistic job previews on jobs and work-family balance. Gender in Management, 30(6), 457-478.

     
     

    Ruggs, E., Martinez, L., Hebl, M., & Law, C. (in press). Workplace trans-actions: How organizations, coworkers, and individual openness influence perceived gender identity discrimination. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity.

     
     

    Ruggs, E., Williams, A., & Hebl, M. (2015). Weight isn’t selling: The insidious effects of weight stigmatization in retail settings.  Journal of Applied Psychology

     
     

    Barron, L. G., & Hebl, M. (2013). The force of law: The effects of sexual orientation anti-discrimination legislation on interpersonal discrimination. Psychology, Public Policy, & Law, 19, 191-205.   

     
     

    King, E. B., Rogelberg, S., Hebl, M. R., Braddy, P., Shanock, L., Doerer, S., & Larsen, S. (2013). When top dogs are fat cats: Do increased waistlines influence performance ratings? Human Resource Management.

     
     

    Madera, J. M., King, E., & Hebl, M. (in press). Enhancing the effects of sexual orientation training: The effects of setting goals and training mentors on attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Business and Psychology.

     
     

    Martinez, L. M., Ruggs, E., Sabat, I., Hebl, M., & Binggeli, S. (in press). Ensuring civil rights on the basis of sexual orientation. Journal of Business and Psychology.

     
     

    Morgan, W. B., Singletary, S. L. B., Hebl, M., & King, E. (in press). Pregnant job applicants who individuate: A field study investigation of reducing interpersonal discrimination. Journal of Applied Psychology.

     
     

    Narula, T., Rampasand, C., Ruggs, E. N., & Hebl, M. (in press). Increasing colonoscopies? A psychological perspective on opting-in versus opting-out. Health Psychology.

     
     

    Nittrouer, C. L., Trump, R. C. E., O’Brien, K. R., & Hebl, M. (2013). Stand up and be counted: In the long run, disclosing helps all. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice.

     
     

    Ruggs, E. N., Law, C., Cox, C., Roehling, M. V., Wiener, R. L., Hebl, M., & Barron, L. (in press). Gone Fishing: I/O psychologists’ missed opportunities to understand marginalized employees’ experiences with discrimination.  Focal Article in Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice.

     
     

    Ruggs, E. R., Hebl, M., Singletary, S. L. B., & Fa-Kaji, N. (in press). Selection biases that emerge when age meets gender. Journal of Managerial Psychology.

     
     

    Volpone, S. D., Stewart, R. W., Luksyte, A., Avery, D. R., Hernandez, M., McKay, P.F., & Hebl, M. R. (2013). Examining the draw of diversity: How diversity climate perceptions affect job pursuit intentions. Human Resource Management, 52, 175-193.

     
     

    Hebl, M., Tonidandel, S., Lin, J., & Ruggs, E. R. (2012). Super models: The impact of like-mentors for gay and lesbian employees. Human Performance, 25, 52-71.  

     
     

    Hebl, M., Williams, M., Kell, H., Sundermann, J., & Davies, P. (2012). Selectively confirming friends: The influence of racial stereotypicality on social networks. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 1329-1335.

     
     

    King, E. B., Hebl, M. R., Botsford Morgan, W., & Ahmad, A. (in press). Experimental field research on sensitive organizational topics. Organizational Research Methods.

     
     

    Madera, J. M., & Hebl, M. (2012). Discrimination against facially stigmatized applicants in interviews: An eye-tracking and face-to-face investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97, 317-330.

     

     
     

    Madera, J. M., & Hebl, M. R. (in press). “Don’t stigmatize”: The ironic effects of equal opportunity guidelines in interviews.  Basic and Applied Social Psychology.

     
     

    Madera, J. M., King, E., & Hebl, M. (in press). Enhancing the effects of sexual orientation training: The effects of setting goals and training mentors on attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Business and Psychology.

     
     

    Madera, J., King, E. B., & Hebl, M. R. (2012). Bringing social identity to work: The influence of manifestation and suppression on perceived discrimination, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 18, 165-170.

     
     

    Martinez, L. R., Law, C., & Hebl, M. (2012). How sexuality information impacts attitude and behaviors toward gay servicemembers. Military Psychology, 24, 461-472.

     
     

    Smith, A. N., Botsford, W. E., King, E., & Hebl, M. (in press). The ins and outs of diversity management: The effect of authenticity on outsider perceptions and insider behaviors.

     
     

    Barron, L. G., King, E. B., & Hebl, M. (2011). Effects of manifest ethnic identification on employment discrimination. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17, 23-30.

     
     

    Hebl, M., & Barron, L. G. (2011). Acceptable stigmas: Identifying, understanding, and remediating discrimination at the individual, organizational, and societal level. Social Issues and Policy Review, 4, 1-30.

     
     

    Law, C. L., Martinez, L. R., Ruggs, E. N., Hebl, M. R., & Akers, E. (2011). Trans-parency in the workplace: How the experiences of transsexual employees can be improved. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79, 710-723.  

     
     

    Ruggs, E. R., Martinez, L., & Hebl, M.,  (2011).  How individuals and organizations can reduce interpersonal discrimination. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5, 29-42. 

     
     

    Barron, L. G., & Hebl, M. (2010). Extending LGBT supportive organizational policies: Communities matter too.  Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3, 79-81.

     
     

    Barron, L. G., & Hebl, M. (2010).  Reducing “acceptable” stigmas through legislation.  Social Issues and Policy Review, 4, 1-30.

     
     

    Bavishi, A.,  Madera, J. M., & Hebl, M. (2010).  The effect of professor ethnicity and gender on student evaluations: Judged before met. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education.

     
     

    Bradley-Geist, J., King, E. B., Skorinko, J., Hebl, M., & McKenna, C. (2010). Moral credentialing by associations: The importance of choice and bias. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 1564-1575.

     
     

    King, E. B., Botsford, W. E., Hebl, M., Kazama, S., Dawson, J., & Perkins, A., Dawson, J. (in press). Benevolent sexism at work: Gender differences in the distribution of challenging developmental experiences. Journal of Management.

     
     

    Knight, J. L., King, E. B., & Hebl, M. (2010). The influence of economic threat on aspects of stigmatization. Journal of Social Issues.

     
     

    Martinez, L. R., & Hebl, M. (2010). Additional agents of change in promoting LGBT inclusiveness in organizations. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3, 82-85.

     
     

    Ruggs, E., King, E. B., Hebl, M., & Fitzsimmons, M. (2010). Assessment of weight stigma. Obesity Facts. Special Issue: The burden of the burden: Interdisciplinary advances in weight stigma research, 3, 60-69.

     
     

    Wang, K., Barron, L. G., & Hebl, M. (2010). Making those who cannot see look best: Effects of visual resume formatting on ratings of job applicants with blindness.  Rehabilitation Psychology, 56, 68-73.

     
     

    *Singletary, S. L., & Hebl, M. (2009). Compensatory strategies for reducing interpersonal discrimination: The effectiveness of acknowledgments, increased positivity, and individuating information. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 797-805.

     
     

    Avery, D. R., Richeson, J., Hebl, M., & Ambady, N. (2009). It doesn't have to be uncomfortable: The role of behavioral scripts in interracial interactions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 1382-1393.

     
     

    Hebl, M., King, E. B., & Perkins, A. (2009). Ethnic differences in the stigma of obesity: Identification and engagement with a thin ideal. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 1165-1172.

     
     

    King, E. B., Hebl, M. R., & Beal, D. J. (2009). Conflict and cooperation in diverse workgroups. Journal of Social Issues, 65, 261-285.

     
     

    King, E. B., Hebl, M. R., George, J. M., & Matusik, S. F. (2009). Understanding tokenism: Negative consequences of perceived gender discrimination in male-dominated organizations. Journal of Management.

     
     

    Madera, J., Hebl, M., & Martin, R. (2009). Gender and letters of recommendation for academics: Agentic and communal differences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 1591-1599.

     
     

    Martinez, L. R., & Hebl, M. (in press). Additional agents of change in promoting LGBT inclusiveness in organizations.  Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice.

     
     Hebl, M. R., Ruggs, E., Singletary, S. L., & Beal, D. J. (2008). Perceptions of obesity across the lifespan. In R Puhl & Latner, J. (Eds.) Obesity, 16, S46-S52.
     
     Hebl, M., King, E., Turchin, J., & Williams, M. (2008). The grapefruit contest: Gender differences in competition and intimacy. Teaching of Psychology.
     
     

    King, E. B., Reilly, C., & Hebl, M. R. (2008). The best and worst of times: Dual perspectives of coming out in the workplace. Group and Organization Management.

     
     Leslie, L. M., King, E. B., Bradley, J. C., & Hebl, M. R. (2008). Triangulating across multiple methods: All signs point to persistent stereotyping in organizations. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 1, 399-404.
     
     Hebl, M. R., King, E. B., Glick, P., Singletary, S., & Kazama, S. (2007). Hostile and benevolent behaviors toward pregnant women: Complementary interpersonal punishments and rewards that maintain traditional roles. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1499-1511.
     
     King, E. B., De Chermont, K., West, M. A., Dawson, J., & Hebl, M. R. (in press). How innovation can alleviate the negative consequences of demanding work: The influence of climate for innovation on organizational outcomes. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology
     
     Law, C. L., King, E., Zitek, E. M., & Hebl, M. (2007). The stigma of AIDS in the United States: A methodological review and directions for future research. In N. Varas Diaz & I. Serrano-Garcia (Eds.) International Perspectives on AIDS Stigma. Interamerican Journal of Psychology. 41, 75-86. San Juan, Puerto Rico.
     
     Madera, J., Podratz, K., King, E. B., & Hebl, M. (2007). Schematic responses to sexual harassment complainants: The influence of gender and physical attractiveness. Sex Roles, 4, 223-230.
     
     McKay, P. F., Avery, D. R., Hernandez, M., Morris, M., & Hebl, M. (2007). Examining the draw of diversity: How diversity climate perceptions affect applicant attraction and employee retention. Personnel Psychology, 60, 35-62.
     
     Zitek, E. M., & Hebl, M. R. (2007). The role of social norm clarity in the influenced expression of prejudice over time. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 867-876.
     
     

    King, E., Shapiro, J. L., Hebl, M., Singletary, S., & Turner, S. "The stigma of obesity in customer service: A mechanism for remediation and bottom-line consequences of interpersonal discrimination." Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(3) (2006) : 579-593.

     
     

    Mendoza, S., King, E., Knight, J., & Hebl, M. "What's in a name?." Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(5) (2006) : 1145-1159.

     
     

    Skorinko, J. L., Kemmer, S., Hebl, M. R., & Lane, D. M. "A rose by any other name..." Color-naming influences on decision making." Psychology & Marketing, 35 (2006) : 2477-2492.

     
     

    Hebl, M., & Dovidio, J. F. "Promoting the "social" in the examination of social stigmas." Personality and Social Psychological Review, 9 (2005) : 156-182.

     
     

    Hebl, M., & Skorinko, J. L. "Acknowledging one¿s physical disability in the interview: Does ¿when¿ make a difference." Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35 (2005) : 1-17.

     
     

    Hebl, M., & Turchin, J. "The stigma of obesity: What about men?." Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 27 (2005) : 27-275.

     
     

    King, E., George, J., & Hebl, M. "Linking personality to helping behaviors at work: An interactional perspective." Journal of Personality, 73 (2005) : 585-607.

     
     

    Knight, J. L., & Hebl, M. "Affirmative reaction: The influence of type of justification on nonbeneficiary attitudes toward affirmative action plans in higher education." Journal of Social Issues, 61 (2005) : 547-568.

     
     

    Williams, M. J., & Hebl, M. "Warding off the attacker: Self defense in theory and in practice." Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35 (2005) : 366-382.

     
     

    Avery, D., Hernandez, M., & Hebl, M. "Recruiting diversity: The race is on. Racial salience in recruitment advertising." Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 1: 146-161.

     
     

    Hebl, M., & King, E. "You are what you wear: An interactive demonstration of the self-fulfilling prophecy." Teaching of Psychology, 31 (2004) : 260-262.

     
     

    Hebl, M., Guiliano, T. A., King, E. B., Knight, J. L., Shapiro, J. L., Skorinko, J., & Wig, A. "Paying the way: The ticket to gender equality in sports." Sex Roles, 51 (2004) : 227-235.

     
     

    Hebl, M., King, E., & Lin, J. "The swimsuit becomes us all: Ethnicity, gender, and vulnerability to self-objectification.." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30 (2004) : 1322-1331.

     
     

    Knight, J. L., Mendoza, M., & Hebl, M. "Toy story: Illustrating gender differences in a motor skills task." Teaching of Psychology, 31 (2004) : 260-262.

     
     

    Avery,Derek, Hernandez,Morela, Hebl, M. "Who's watching the race? Racial salience in recruitment advertising." Journal of Applied Social Psychology (2002) In Press

     
     

    Griffith,Kristin, Hebl, M. "Acknowledgment of sexual orientation in the workplace." Journal of Applied Psychology (2002) In Press

     
     

    Hebl, M. "Out of role, out of luck: The influence of race, status, and performance record on job appraisals." Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studie (2003) In Press

     
     

    Hebl, M. "The weight of obesity in evaluating others: A mere proximity effect." , 29 (2003) : 28-38.

     
     

    Hebl, M., Foster,Jessica, Mannix,Laura, Dovidio,John "Formal and interpersonal discrimination: A field study of bias toward homosexual applicants." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28 (2002) : 815-825.

     
     

    Hebl, M., Kleck,Robert "Acknowledging one's stigma in the interview setting: Strategy or liability?." Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32 (2002) : 223-249.

     
     

    Hebl, M., Kleck,Robert "Virtually interactive: A new paradigm for the analysis of stigma." Psychological Inquiry, 13 (2002) : 128-132.

     
     

    Hebl, M., Xu,Jingping, Mason,Malia "Weighing the care: Patients' reports of discrimination by weight and gender." International Journal of Obesity (2002) In Press

     
     

    Peake,Philip, Mischel,Walter, Hebl, M. "The effect of attention deployment on delay of gratification in working versus waiting situations." Developmental Psychology, 38 (2002) : 313-326.

     
     Articles
     

    Hebl, M. R., & Madera, J. "Ethnocentrism." Encyclopedia of Social Psychology (2006) In Press

     
     

    King, E., & Hebl, M. "LGBT and SIOP: Critical issues, barriers, and future directions.." The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 42 (2004)

     
     

    Avery, D., Hernandez, M., & Hebl, M. "Recruiting diversity: The race is on. Racial salience in recruitment advertising.." Journal of Applied Social PsychologyIn Press

     
     

    Hebl, M. & Mannix, L. "The weight of obesity in evaluating others: A mere proximity effect.." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29 (2003) : 28-38.

     
     

    Hebl, M., Xu, J., & Mason, M. "Weighing the care: Patients' perceptions of physician care as a function of gender and weight.." International Journal of Obesity, 28 (2003) : 269-275.

     
     

    Knight, J. L., & Hebl, M. "Affirmative reaction: The influence of type of justification on nonbeneficiary attitudes toward affirmative action plans in higher education.." Journal of Social IssuesIn Press

     
     

    Knight, J. L., Hebl, M. R., Foster, J. B., & Mannix, L. M. "Out of role? Out of luck: The influence of race and leadership status on performance appraisals.." Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies (2003)

     
     

    Knight, J. L., Mendoza, M., & Hebl, M. "Toy story: Illustrating gender differences in a motor skills task.." Teaching of PsychologyIn Press

     
     

    Williams, M. J., & Hebl, M. "Warding off the attacker: Self defense in theory and in practice.." Journal of Applied Social PsychologyIn Press

     
     

    Knight,Jennifer, Hebl, M. "Affirmative reaction: The influence of type of justification on non beneficiary attitudes toward affirmative action plans in higher education." Journal of Social Issues (2000) In Press

     
     Books
     

    Michelle R. Hebl, Ludy T. Benjamin, Jr., & Charles Blair-Broeker "Handbook for Teaching Introductory Psychology. Volume 2.." 

     
     

    Todd F. Heatherton, Robert E. Kleck, Michelle R. Hebl, & Jay Hull "Stigma: Social Psychological Perspectives." 

     
     Book chapters
     

    Hebl, M., Moreno, C., & King, E. (2015). Strategies for reducing discrimination: A stigma lens for considering what targets can do. In A. Colella & King, E. B. (Eds). Oxford Handbook of Discrimination. NY: Oxford University Press.

     
     

    Hebl, M., Ruggs, E. R., Martinez, L. R., Trump, R., & Nittrouer, C. (in progress). Understanding and reducing interpersonal discrimination in the workplace. In T. Nelson (Ed.). Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination 2nd Edition. NY,NY: Taylor & Francis/Psychology Press.

     
     

    Barron, L. G., & Hebl, M. (in press). Sexual orientation discrimination in the workplace.  In M. Paludi (Ed.) Managing diversity in today’s workforce. CA: Praeger Publishers.

     
     

    Barron, L. G., & Hebl, M. (in press). Sexual orientation: A protected and uprotected class. In Paludi, M., DeSousa, E., & Paludi, C. Jr., (Eds.). Praeger handbook of workplace discrimination: Legal, management and social science perspectives. CA: Praeger Publishers.

     
     

    Barron, L. G., Hebl, M., & Paludi, M. (in press). Reducing stigma about employees with HIV/AIDS: Workplace responses. CA: Praeger Publishers.

     
     

    Hebl, M., & Avery, D. R. (in press). Diversity in organizations. In Schmitt, N., & S. Highhouse (Eds.) Handbook of Psychology (2nd ed.). Wiley.

     
     

    Hebl, M., & Madera, J. M. (in press).  Appearance-related social exclusion.  In N DeWall (Ed.) Social exclusion. Oxford University Press.

     
     

    Hebl, M., Martinez, L. R., Barron, L. G., King, E. B., & Skorinko, J. (in press).  How diversity ideologies influence LGBT employees: To be or not to be, and to see or not to see.  

     
     

    King, E., B., & Hebl, M. (2012).  The translation of prejudice into social interactions.  In C. S. Crandall & Stangor, C. (Eds.) Fontiers of Social Psychology. Psychology Press.

     

     
     

    King, E., B., & Hebl, M. (in press). The social and psychological experience of stigma. In Q. Roberson (Ed.) Oxford Handbook of Diversity. Oxford University Press.

     
     

    Ruggs, E. N., & Hebl, M. (2012). Diversity, inclusion, and cultural awareness for classroom and outreach education. The SWE AWE Project and National Academy of Engineering: Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education.

     
     

    Barron, L. G., Hebl, M., & Paludi, M. (in press). Reducing stigma about employees with HIV/AIDS: Workplace responses. CA: Praeger Publishers.

     
     

    Dovidio, J. F., Pagotto, L., & Hebl, M. (2011). Implicit attitudes and discrimination against people with physical disabilities (pp. 157-183). In R. Weiner  & Willborn, S. L. (Eds.). Disability and aging discrimination.

     
     

    Hebl, M., & Avery, D. R. (in press).  Diversity in organizations.  In Schmitt, N., & S. Highhouse (Eds.) Handbook of Psychology (2nd ed.).  Wiley.

     
     

    Ruggs, E. N., & Hebl, M. (2011). Diversity, inclusion, and cultural awareness for classroom and outreach education. The SWE AWE Project and National Academy of Engineering: Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education.

     
     

    Barron, L. G., Hebl, M., & Paludi, M. (in press). Reducing stigma about employees with HIV/AIDS: Workplace responses. CA: Praeger Publishers.

     
     

    Dovidio, J. F., Pagotto, L., & Hebl, M. (2011). Implicit attitudes and discrimination against people with physical disabilities (pp. 157-183). In R. Weiner  & Willborn, S. L. (Eds.). Disability and aging discrimination.

     
     

    Hebl, M., & Madera, J. M. (in press).  Appearance-related social exclusion.  In N DeWall (Ed.) Social exclusion. Oxford University Press.

     
     

    Hebl, M., & OBrien, K. (2010). Ambivalent sexism. In Levine, J., & Hogg, M. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Group Processes. Sage.

     
     

    Hebl, M., Law, C., & King, E. B. (2010). Heterosexism. In M. Hewstone, Glick, P., Dovidio, J. F., & Esses, V. (Eds.) The handbook of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination. Sage.

     
     

    King, E., B., & Hebl, M. (invited; due November, 2010).  The social and psychological experience of stigma.  In Q. Roberson (Ed.) Oxford Handbook of Diversity. Oxford University Press.

     
     

    Crandall, C. S., Nierman, A., & Hebl, M. (2009). Prejudice toward weight (pp. 469-488). In T. Nelson (Ed.) Handbook of prejudice. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

     
     

    Hebl, M. R., Martinez, L. R., Bachman, K. R. O., & Rittmayer, A. (2009). Girls experiences in the classroom. The SWE AWE Project and National Academy of Engineering: Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education.

     
     

    Singletary, S., L., Ruggs, E., Hebl, M., & Davies, P. G. (2009). Stereotype threat: Causes, effects, and remedies. The SWE AWE Project and National Academy of Engineering: Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education.

     
     Hebl, M. R., & Barron, L. G. (in press). Stigma. In In Levine, J., & Hogg, M. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Group Processes. Sage.
     
     Hebl, M., Dovidio, J. F., Shelton, J. N., Richeson, J., Kawakami, K., & Gaertner, S. (in press). Interpretation of interaction: Responsiveness to verbal and nonverbal cues. In S. Demoulin, J.P. Leyens, & J. F. Dovidio (Eds.), Intergroup misunderstandings: Impact of divergent social realities. New York: Psychology Press.
     
     Hebl, M., Madera, J., & King, E. B. (2008). Exclusion, avoidance, and social distancing. In K. M. Thomas (Ed.) Diversity resistance: Manifestation and solutions. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
     
     Shelton, N., & Dovidio, J. F., Hebl, M., & Richeson, J. (in press). Misunderstandings in interracial interactions. In S. Demoulin, J.P. Leyens, & J. F. Dovidio (Eds.), Intergroup misunderstandings: Impact of divergent social realities. New York: Psychology Press.
     
     Richeson, J., Dovidio, J. F., Shelton, N., & Hebl, M. (2007). Implications for ingroup-outgroup membership for interpersonal perceptions: Faces and emotions. In U. Hess & Kirouac, G. (Eds.) Handbook of emotion (pp. 7-32), 3rd edition. New York: Guilford Press.
     
     

    Dovidio, J. F., Hebl, M., Richeson, J., & Shelton, N. "Nonverbal behavior in intergroup context." Handbook of Nonverbal Communication (2006)

     
     

    Hebl, M. R., Law, C., & King, E. B. "Heterosexism." The Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination (2007) In Press

     
     

    Hebl, M. R., Madera, J., & King, E. B. "Exclusion, avoidance, and social distancing." Diversity Resistance: Manifestations and Solutions (2006) In Press

     
     

    Law, C., King, E., Zitek, E. M., & Hebl, M. "The stigma of AIDS in the United States: A methodological review and directions for future research." Communty Psychology: Reflections, implications and new paths (2005) In Press

     
     

    Dovidio, J. F., & Hebl, M. "Discrimination at the level of the individual: cognitive and affective factors.." Frontiers Volume on DiscriminationIn Press

     
     

    Hebl, M. "The quest for Boston.." Sport psychology case studiesIn Press

     
     

    Jack Dovidio, Hebl, M. "Discrimination at the level of the individual: cognitive and affective factors." In Press

     
     Book reviews
     

    Hebl, M "Diversity: Social reality, not political correctness.." Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28 (2004) : 268-269.

     
     

    Bronstein, P., & Quina, K. "Teaching gender and multicultural awareness: Resources for the psychology classroom.."  (2003)

     
     

    Nisbett, R., Gilovich, T., & Keltner, D. "Social Psychology."  (2003)

     
     Other
     

    Ganske, K.H., & Hebl, M. "Once upon a time there was a math contest: Gender stereotypes and memory. Teaching of Psychology.." Teaching of Psychology., 28 (2001) : 266-268.

     
     

    Hebl, M., & Xu, J. "Weighing the care: Physicians' reactions to the size of a patient." International Journal of Obesity, 25 (2001) : 1246-1252.

     
     

    Hebl, M., Foster, J.M., Mannix, L. M., & Dovidio, J. F. "Formal and interpersonal discrimination: A field study examination of applicant bias." Personality and Social Psychological Bulletin (in press)

     
     

    Hebl, M., & Kleck, R. E. "Hebl, M., & Kleck, R. E. (in press). Acknowledging one?s stigma in the interview setting: Strategy or liability? Journal of Applied Social Psychology.." Journal of Applied Social Psychology. (in press)

     
     

    Michelle R. Hebl & Robert E. Kleck "The Social Consequences of Physical Disability." Stigma: Social Psychological Perspectives (2000) : 419-440.

     
     

    Michelle R. Hebl, Todd F. Heatherton, & Jennifer Tickle "Awkward Moments." Stigma: Social Psychological Perspectives (2000) : 273?306.

     
     

    Hebl, M., Heatherton, T. "The Stigma of Obesity: The Difference are Black and White.." Personality and Social Psychological Bulletin, 24 (1998) : 417-426.

     
     

    Hebl, M., Parsons, R., Tassinary, R., Ulrich, R. & Grossman, Michele "The View from the Road: Implications for Stress Recovery and Immunization.." Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18 (1998) : 113-140.

     
     

    M. Hebl, Worchel, S. & Jenner, S. "The Effects of Leadership Succession and Predecessor Reassignment on Group Performance and Leader Behavior.." Journal of Small Groups Research, 29 (1998) : 436-451.

     
    Presentations
     Conference Committee Member
     

    Hebl, M., King, E., & Berrien, J. (2012). Theme track keynote: SIOP and EEOC: Finding common ground. SIOP. San Diego. April 27.

     
     King, E. B., Botsford, W., Huffman, A., & Hebl, M. R. (April, 2008). Work, family, and organizational advancement: Does balance support the advancement of mothers? Paper presented at the annual conference of the Society for Industrial Organizational Psychology in San Francisco, CA.
     
     Invited Papers
     Madera, J. M., Hebl, M., & Martin, R. (2007). Gender and letters of recommendation: Agentic and communal differences. SIOP. New York, NY. April 28/
     
     Law, C., Hebl, M., & Berry, J. L. (2007). Reaction to gay and lesbian personal discussion in the workplace. SIOP. New York, NY. April 28.
     
     Law, C., Hebl, M., & King, E. B. (2007). Social interaction at work: Experiences of gay and lesbian employees. SIOP. New York, NY. April 28.
     
     Invited Talks
     

    Hebl, M. (2011). Reducing Interpersonal Discrimination. University of Connecticut. Department Colloquium.

     
     

    "Barron, L. G., King, E. B., & Hebl, M. (2010). Manifesting one’s ethnic identification: Liability in the lab but strategy in the field? SPSP. Las Vegas, NV.." (January 2010)

     
     

    "Hebl, M. (2009). Distinguished Teaching Contributions Award: A passion for teaching: Reflecting back and looking forward. SIOP. New Orleans, LA.." (April 9, 2009)

     
     Hebl, M. (2008). Interpersonal discrimination and its remediation. Invited I/O Psychology Address. APS. Chicago, IL. May 24.
     
     

    "Reducing interpersonal discrimination." Visiting Franklin Scholar, University of Georgia,. (Oct 2, 2008)

     
     Singletary, S. L. B., & Hebl, M. (2007). Mechanisms for remediating discrimination in a job applicant context. SIOP. New York, NY. April 28.
     
     

    "Reducing Interpersonal Discrimination." Texas A&M University, College Station. (9/24/2007)

     
     

    "Reducing Interpersonal Discrimination." University of Texas, Austin. (10/15/2007)

     
     

    "Reducing Interpersonal Discrimination." University of Kansas, Kansas. (4/13/2007)

     
     Hebl, M., & King, E. B. (2007). Reducing interpersonal discrimination. Small Group Meeting on Social Stigma and Social Disadvantage. Oud-Poelgeest Castle, The Netherlands. June 21-22.
     
     Madera, J. M., Hebl, M., & Beal, D. J. (2007). Staffing policies and interview structure: How they relate to discrimination and diversity. SIOP. New York, NY. April 28.
     
     

    co-author.  "Antecedents, consequences, and manifestations of the stigma of homosexuality at work: Applying a dual-perspective, multilevel theory." SIOP, L.A.. (4/17/05) With King, E. B.

     
     

    co-author.  "Extent of team based working: Linking use of teams to organizational success." SIOP, L.A.. (4/17/05) With King, E., West, M., & Dawson, J. F.

     
     

    "Field studies of discrimination." Syracuse University. (10/14/05)

     
     

    "Field studies of discrimination." SUNY Albany. (10/17/05)

     
     

    Lead author.  "Field studies of discrimination." Looking toward the future: Discrimination and prejudice in the 21st century, UW-Madison. (9/15/05) With Eden King, Sarah Singletary, and Juan Madera

     
     

    "Teaching tips." Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY. (10/14/05)

     
     

    "Teaching tips." University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK. (4/22/05)

     
     

    "Teaching tips." Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. (3/11/05)

     
     

    "The subtleties of discrimination." University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK. (4/22/05)

     
     

    "The subtleties of discrimination." Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. (3/11/05)

     
     

    "Gay and lesbian employees, obese customers, and pregnant job applicants: What field studies on stigmatized individuals teach us about discrimination.." Marketing Program of University of Houston Business School, University of Houston. (9/5/03)

     
     

    "The heart of social psychology.." University of Houston, University of Houston. (4/21/03)

     
     

    "Applicant and customer discrimination: A social interactional field analysis." Stanford University, (2002)

     
     

    "Disidentification of Black women: Why thin is not "in"." Stanford University, (2003)

     
     

    "Field investigations of discrimination." University of Texas - Arlington, (2002)

     
     

    "Gay and lesbian employees, obese customers, and pregnant job applicants: What field studies on stigmatized individuals teach us about discrimination.." Arizona State University, ASU. (2002)

     
     

    "The first day of class." Southwest Conference on the Teaching of Psychology, (2002)

     
     Keynote Speaker
     

    Hebl, M. (2011). Enhancing Diversity by Identifying and Reducing Interpersonal Discrimination. University of Connecticut. University Summit Keynote Speaker.

     
     

    "Hebl, M. (2009). Keynote speaker. The gift of psychology. Career Pathways in Psychology Conference jointly sponsored by Department of Psychology at University of Central Arkansas and Arkansas Psychological Association. November 13.." (November 13, 2009)

     
     

    "Hebl, M. (2009). The remediation of interpersonal discrimination. Keynote Address of North Carolina I/O Psychology Meeting. September 10, 2009. ." (September, 10, 2009)

     
     

    "Why I love my job." Southwest Teaching of Psychology Conference, University of Houston - Clear Lake. (11/3/06)

     
     Lectures
     

    Co-Author.  "Making it to the top: Do family-friendly workplaces support the advancement of women?." Academy of Management, New Orleans. (August 10) With King, E. B., & Hebl, M.

     
     Other
     

    Dietz, J., Binggeli, S., Krings, F., Hebl, M., Anderson, A., GIlrane, V., King, E., Lee, A., Huggins, T., Avery, D.. McKay, P., Volpone, S., Malka, A., Derous, E., Nguyen, H. H., Ryan, A. M., & Brown, E. (2012). Novel perspectives on employment discrimination. SIOP. San Diego. April 28.

     
     

    "Applicant and customer discrimination: A social interactional analysis.." Social Psychologists in Texas, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth. (January 12)

     
     

    "Applicant and customer discrimination: A social interactional field analysis." Social Psychologists in Texas (SPIT), Texas Christian University, Fort Worth. (1/12/01)

     
     

    "Attracting the best candidates: Is work-life balance really a priority?." Shared Interest Track (SIT) at Academy of Management Conference., Washington D.C.. (8/7/01) With Foster, J

     
     

    "Disidentification and differentiation: black women do not become the swimsuit.." Society of Personality and Social Psychology Conference, San Antonio. (Feb 3) With Lin, J

     
     

    "Hiring biases and parental status.." Society of Industrial/Organizational Psychology., San Diego, CA. (April 27) With Foster, J

     
     

    "Leadership research in the new millenium." Society of International Psychology, Santiago, Chile. (7/29/01)

     
     

    "Recruiting diversity: The race is on. Society of Industrial/Organizational Psychology.." Society of Industrial/Organizational Psychology., San Diego, CA. (April 27) With Hernandez, M., & Avery, D

     
     

    "The stigma of obesity: Weighing people's prejudices.." Social-Personality Area Meeting (SPAM), UT-Austin. (11/12/01)

     
     

    "To disclose or not to disclose: A micronarrative account." American Psychological Society, Toronto, Canada. (6/01) With Rogers, A.

     
     

    "Body image and disidentification theory: Do Black women have the answer?." Psychological and Organizational Perspectives on Discrimination in the Workplace: Research, Theory, and Practice, Rice University. (May 19) With Lin, J

     
     

    "Discrimination against parents and the institution of family-friendly policies in the workplace: A roundtable discussion." Psychological and Organizational Perspectives on Discrimination in the Workplace: Research, Theory, and Practice, Rice University. (May 19) With Foster, J

     
     

    "Gay and proud: A field study approach to examining hiring discrimination against homosexual individuals." Society of Industrial/Organizational Psychology, New Orleans. With Foster, J., Mannix, L

     
     

    "Gender discrimination in collegiate sports: The score with respect to exposure levels and ticket pricing.." Psychological and Organizational Perspectives on Discrimination in the Workplace: Research, Theory, and Practice, Rice University. (May 19) With Mannix, L., Wig, A., Giuliano, T., Swinkels, A

     
     

    "Organizational discrimination and responsiveness.." Social Group, UW-Madison. (November 18)

     
     

    "Parental status and discrimination: The role of sex-stereotyped jobs. Psychological and Organizational Perspectives on Discrimination in the Workplace: Research, Theory, and Practice." Psychological and Organizational Perspectives on Discrimination in the Workplace: Research, Theory, and Practice, Rice University. (May 19) With Foster, J

     
     

    "Stigma of sexual orientation: A roundtable discussion." Psychological and Organizational Perspectives on Discrimination in the Workplace: Research, Theory, and Practice, Rice University. (May 19) With Ragins, B.

     
     

    "The diversity of discrimination: When good results are bad results.." Social Group, University of Chicago. (March 2)

     
     

    "The diversity of discrimination: When good results are bad results.." Social Group., Texas A&M University. (February 11)

     
     

    "Weighing health care: Physician's and patients' reactions to obesity.." Social Psychology Group, University of Houston. (February 7)

     
     

    "Weighing healthcare: An examination of physician's reactions to the average weight, overweight, and obese patient. Psychological and Organizational Perspectives on Discrimination in the Workplace: Research, Theory, and Practice." Organizational Perspectives on Discrimination in the Workplace: Research, Theory, and Practice, Rice University. (May 19) With Xu, J

     
     

    "Acknowledgment in the workplace: Strategy or liability?." Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology, Atlanta, GA. (May 1) With Robert E. Kleck

     
     

    "Active learning: Some of the best lessons are "experienced" in the classroom." Teaching Workshop for Future and Current Teachers, Rice University. (March 18)

     
     

    "Body image and the stigma of obesity." Rice Women's Conference, Rice University. (February 6)

     
     

    "Discrimination, diversity, and psychology." John Cabot University, Rome, Italy. (November 24)

     
     

    "Executive leadership." John Cabot University, Rome, Italy. (November 23)

     
     

    "Leadership and business policy." John Cabot University, Rome, Italy. (November 25)

     
     

    "Stigma by association: Hiring can be a weighty decision." American Psychological Association, Boston, MA. (August 7) With Laura Mannix

     
     

    "Teaching and assisting in the classroom." Teaching Workshop for Incoming Graduate Students, Rice University. (August 25)

     
     

    "The field of industrial/organizational psychology." The Dedication of Moore Hall, Dartmouth College. (September 25)

     
     

    "Evaluating size: Subcultural variation.." Invited talk to the social psychology group at Northeastern University, (February 1998)

     
     

    "Role of relationship and level of attractiveness of associate on a neural target.." American Psychological Association, Washington, DC. (May 1998) With Toby Ebede, Aimee Cain, Lopa Patel & Blanca Vera

     
     

    "The effects of ingroup/outgroup identification and status on reactions to threat." American Psychological Association, Washington, DC. (May 1998) With Kris Koepsel

     
     

    "Winning games and aggressive decisions: Positivity in the ratings of coaches.." American Psychological Association, Washington, DC. (May 1998) With Dara Denberg

     
     Panelist
     

    Berry, O, Avery, D., Parks, K., Hebl, M., McKay, P., Tippins, N., & Yuengling, R. (2012). Theme track: Narrowing the science-practice gap for workplace discrimination. SIOP. San Diego. April 27.

     
     

    Dickson, M., Hebl, M., & Tondidandel, S. (2012). Undergraduates matter, too! Promoting bachelor’s-level I-O education. SIOP. San Diego. April 28.

     
     

    Martinez, L., Law, C., Cornwell, J., Ruggs, E., Hebl, M., Buxo, N., Waldrup, J., Lee, V. B., Herres, D., Magley, V., Misdom, B., Travis, S., & Kolbe, K. (2012). Workplace experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals. SIOP. San Diego. April 29.

     
     

    Martinez, L., & Hebl, M. (2011).   Childhood cancer survivors’ workplace experiences.  Part of symposium by Alyssa McGonagle. SIOP. Chicago. April 15.

     
     

    Hebl, M., O’Brien, K., Madera, J., Meyer, R., Reider, M., & Walvoord, A. (2011). Funding options for graduate students: Alternatives to waiting tables. SIOP. Chicago. April 16.

     
     

    Aziz, S., Baranik, L., Desormeaux, L., Hebl, M., Lin, L., Roote, B., & Salter, N. (2011). Not a good ole boy? Gender issues in the workplace. SIOP. Chicago. April 16.

     
     

    Singletary, S., & Hebl, M. (2011). The impact of formal and interpersonal discrimination on job performance.  Part of symposium by Kizzy Parks. SIOP. Chicago. April 15.

     
     

    "Gandour, L., Kell, H. J., & Hebl, M. (2009). Interpersonal perspectives on intergroup bias: When diverse individuals interact. SIOP. New Orleans, LA. April 9.." (April 9, 2009)

     
     

    "Hebl, M. (2009). Does social identity affect interpersonal discrimination? Surfacing invisible diversities. AOM. Chicago. August 10.." (August 10, 2009)

     
     

    "King, E. B., Singletary, S. L. B., & Hebl, M. (2009). Evidence-based diversity management: Strategies for managing diverse organizations. SIOP. New Orleans, LA. April 9.." (April 9, 2009)

     
     Hebl, M. R., & King, E. B. (April, 2008). Labeling and acting on subtle and blatant discrimination toward the self and others. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Society for Industrial Organizational Psychology in San Francisco, CA.
     
     

    "Obesity and workplace discrimination.." SIOP, San Francisco. (April 2008) With Cort Rudolph, Boris Baltes, Eden King, Mark Roehling,

     
     Hebl, M., & King, E. B. (2008). Social interactions between perceivers and stigmatized individuals. As part of symposium entitled “Different perspectives on stigmatization: New developments in theory and research.” EAESP. Opatija, Croatia. June 13.
     
     Hebl, M. R., & King, E. B., (2007). How organizations can help childcare work: Reducing consequences of childcare discruptions. SIOP. New York, NY. April 28.
     
     King, E. B., Bono, J. E., Finkelstein, L., Hebl, M., Heilman, M. E., & Tetrick, L. E. (2007). Women in Academe: New solutions to a persistent problem. SIOP. New York, NY, April 28.
     
     

    "Exclusion, avoidance, and social distancing." AOM, Atlanta. (8/16/06) With Madera, J. M., & King, E. B.

     
     

    co-author.  "Critical issues to consider in conduting research on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues." SIOP, Chicago. (April 3, 2004) With Button, S., Cornwell, J., Hebl, M., Ragins, B. R., & Welles, B.

     
     Posters
     

    Narula, T., Ramprasad, C., Ruggs, E. N., & Hebl, M. R. (2012, May). A Psychological Perspective on “opting-in” versus “opting-out” in healthcare. Accepted poster for the 24th Annual Association for Psychological Science Convention, Chicago, IL. Winner of the Association for Psychological Science Student Research Award.

     
     

    Ramprasad, C., Narula, T., Ruggs, E. N., & Hebl, M. (2012). A psychological perspective on opting-in versus opting-out in volunteer recruitment. APS. Chicago. May 26.

     
     

    Ruggs, E. N., & Hebl, M. (2012). Age bias in the employment application process: Too old to employ? APS. Chicago. May 26.

     
     

    Jain, S., Srivastava, R., Peeters, S., Alhalel, N., Ruggs, E. N., Martinez, L. R., & Hebl, M. (2012). The impact of age, weight, and gender on patients’ evaluations of physicians. APS. Chicago. May 26. Association for Psychological Science Student Caucus Student Research Award Honorable Mention.

     
     

    King, E., Rogelberg, S., Hebl, M., Braddy, P., Shanock, L., Doerer, S., McDowell-Larsen, S. (2011). Can top dogs be fat cats? Obesity and executive evaluation. SIOP. Chicago.  April 15.

     
     

    "Madera, J., Hebl, M., & Sundermann, J. (2009). Attracting female applicants: Do numbers in management matter? SIOP. New Orleans, LA. April 9.." (April 9, 2009)

     
     

    "Ruggs, E., & Hebl, M. (2009). The impact of age and obesity stigmatization in employment. AOM. Chicago. August 11.." (August 11, 2009)

     
     King, E. B., Reilly, C., & Hebl, M. (February, 2008). The best and worst of times: Exploring dual perspectives of ¿coming out¿. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology in Albuquerque, NM.
     
     

    "A rose by any other name would stink: Color naming influences on consumer decision making." SPSP, Palm Springs, CA. (February, 2006) With Skorinko, J.L., Lane, D., & Kemmer, S.

     
     

    co-author.  "Credentialing by association: Are friendships with ethnic minorities used strategically?." SPSP, New Orleans. (1/21/05) With King, E., Mendoza, S., Brickman, D., & Knight, J.

     
     

    co-author.  "Looking up when looking down: Gender, threat, and social comparison." SPSP, New Orleans. (1/21/05) With King, E., & Knight, J. L.

     
     

    co-author.  "Prejudice toward stigmatized individuals: The short- and longer-term effects of social norm clarity on influence attempts." SPSP, New Orleans. (1/21/05) With Zitek, E.

     
     

    co-author.  "Remediation strategies and consequences of interpersonal discrimination toward obese customers." SIOP, L.A.. (4/17/05) With Turner, S. L., Singletary, S. L. B., Shapiro, J., & King, E.

     
     

    Author.  "Context and the ambivalent sexism scale." American Psychological Association, Honolulu. (July 29, 2004) With Singletargy, S., & Hebl, M

     
     

    Co-author.  "Dual perspectives of coming out in the workplace.." American Psychological Association, Honolulu. (July 29, 2004) With Reilly, C. A., King, E. B., Hebl, M., & Griffith, K. H.

     
     

    Co-author.  "Influence of on-site day-care facilities on evaluations of working women." American Psychological Association, Honolulu. (August 29, 2004) With Botsford, W. E., King, E. B., & Hebl, M

     
     

    co-author.  "Stigma at work: A multi-level, dual-perspective theory.." SIOP, Chicago. (April 2, 2004) With King, E. B., & Hebl, M

     
     

    co-author.  "The influence of gender on responses to sexual harassment complaints.." SIOP, New Orleans. (April 2, 2004) With Podratz, K., & Hebl, M.

     
     

    co-author.  "The relationship between economic threat and attitudes toward affirmative action." SIOP, Chicago. (April 3, 2004) With Knight, J. L., Kleinberg, S., King, E., & Hebl, M.

     
     

    ""The grapefruit race": Demonstrating gender differences in same-sex intimacy.." National Institute for the Teaching of Psychology Conference, St. Petersburg, FL. (01/02-05/03) With J. McGuire

     
     

    "Affect at work: How extraversion mitigates the impact of neuroticism on mood.." SIOP, Orlando, FL. (4/3/03) With J. George & E. King

     
     

    "Affirmative reaction: The influence of different types of framing on reactions toward affirmative action.." SIOP, Orlando, FL. (4/3/03) With J. Knight and T. Bludau

     
     

    "Casting anchors: The influence of news anchors' and evaluators' gender, race, and age on hiring perceptions.." APS, Atlanta, GA. (5/29/03) With J. Knight & K. Stecher

     
     

    "Stigma in the workplace: Perceptions of multiple stigmatized groups.." Interamerican Society of Psychology, Lima, Peru. (7/15/03) With E. King, J. Knight, S. Kazama, & J. Bigazzi

     
     

    "Super models: The impact of like-mentors for homosexual employees.." SIOP, Orlando, FL. (4/3/03) With J. Lin, S. Tonidandel, & J. Knight

     
     

    "The manifestation and remediation of pregnancy discrimination in hiring situations.." SIOP, Orlando, FL. (4/3/03) With S. Kazama

     
     

    "The swimsuit becomes us all: Ethnicity, gender, and vulnerability to self-objecification." SPSP, Los Angeles, CA. (2/8/03) With E. King

     
     

    "When is thin "in" for Black women? Ego-defensive and status value explanations.." APS, Atlanta, GA. (5/29/03) With E. King

     
     Seminar Speaker
     

    Ruggs, E., Cox, C., Wiener, R., Barron, L., Martinez, L., Bachman, K., Hebl, M., Law, C., Scarpate, J., Roehling, M., Elkins, T., & Hall, A. (2012). Antidiscrimination law: Past successes, current concerns, and future directions. SIOP. San Diego. April 28.

     
     Session Chair
     

    "Hebl, M. (2010). From terminal master’s to Ph.D.: Answering the basic questions. SIOP. Atlanta.."

     
     Workshops
     

    "Davidson College Search Training Sessions.." (10/3/2011)

     
     

    "Why I love my job." Graduate Students Association, Dept of Psychology, Dept of Math, Sewall Hall. (March 1, 2006)

     
     

    Presenter.  "Panel discussion on directions for GLBT research and methodological challenges. Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender issues: Creating a research, teaching, and action agenda. AOM Shared Professional Development Workshop." Academy of Management, New Orleans. (August 7, 2004) With Creed, D., Hebl, M., Hunt, J., & Ragins, B

     
    Editorial Positions
     Associate Editor, Personnel Assessment and Decisions. (2013 - 2013)

     Associate Editor, Personnel Assessment and Decisions. (2015 - 2016)

     Associate Editor, Archives of Scientific Psychology. (2015 - 2016)

     Editor for Special Issue, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, Co-editor on Special feature on “Race and ethnic psychology in the workplace”. (2013 - 2013)

     Editor for Special Issue, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. (2012 - 2012)

     Member of the Editorial Board, Journal of Management, 2008 - present. (2013 - 2013)

     Member of the Editorial Board, Journal of Business and Psychology. (2010 - 2010)

     Member of the Editorial Board, Journal of Business and Psychology, 2008 - present . (2013 - 2013)

     Member of the Editorial Board, Journal of Management. (2012 - 2012)

     Member of the Editorial Board, Special Issue of Journal of Business and Psychology on Civil Rights. (2012 - 2012)

     Member of the Editorial Board, Journal of Business and Psychology. (2012 - 2012)

     Member of the Editorial Board, Journal of Management. (2010 - 2010)

     Member of the Editorial Board, Journal of Applied Psychology, 2003-2007, 2013 - present . (2013 - 2013)

    Supervised Theses & Dissertations
     Jennifer Knight, Ph.D. Falling into debt, feeling out-group threat, and going to work upset: The influence of economic threat on attitudes toward organizational diversity policies. (2004) (Thesis Director)

     Stephanie Kazama, Ph.D. Managers distribution of developmental experiences in the workplace. (2004) (Thesis Director)

     Ken Podratz, Ph.D. The influence of stereotype suppression on memory of information from a structured interview. (2004) (Thesis Director)

     Eden King, Ph.D. The Effect of Bias on the Advancement of Working Mothers: Disentangling Legitimate Concerns from Innacurate Stereotypes as Predictors of Career Success. (2006) (Thesis Director)

     Sarah Singletary, M.S. Targeting the Subtleties: Strategies for Remediating Interpersonal Discrimination. (2006) (Thesis Director)

     Stacey Turner, Ph.D. The Effect of Cross-Cultural Training on Adjustment and Job Performance: Examining the Role of Supervisor Skill-Building and Individual Differences. (2006) (Thesis Director)

     Stacey Turner, phd The Effect of Cross-Cultural Training on Adjustment and Job Performance: Examining the Role of Supervisor Skill-Building and Individual Differences. (2007) (Thesis Director)

     Laura G. Barron, MA Ethnic and Proud: The Effects of Manifest Racial Identification and Activism on Applicant Discrimination. (2007) (Thesis Director)

     Laura G. Barron, MA “Ethnic and Proud”: The Effects of Manifest Racial Identification and Activism on Applicant Discrimination. (2007) (Thesis Director)

     Stacey Turner, phd The Effect of Cross-Cultural Training on Adjustment and Job Performance: Examining the Role of Supervisor Skill-Building and Individual Differences. (2007) (Thesis Director)

     Sarah LaTash Brionne Singletary, Ph.D. The differential impact of formal and interpersonal discrimination on job performance. (2009) (Thesis Director)

     Larry Ross Martinez, MA Childhood cancer survivors' workplace experiences. (2010) (Thesis Director)

     Katharine Ridgway O'Brien Bachman, MA The influence of work-family balance based realistic job previews on job decisions in academia. (2010) (Thesis Director)

     Larry Martinez, Ph.D. Confronting Bias: How Targets and Allies Can Address Prejudice Against Gay Men in the Workplace. (2012) (Thesis Director)

     Rachel Trump, Male Allies: Men Convince other Men that Gender Equity Matters. (Thesis Director)

     Christy Nittrouer, Lacking a Voice: Bias against Women as Academic Speakers at Top Universities. (Thesis Director)

    Awards, Prizes, & Fellowships
     George R. Brown Certificate of Highest Merit, 2015 – Most prestigious teaching award given at Rice University. Retired from winning additional teaching awards.,

     Sarah A. Burnett Superior Teaching in the Social Sciences, 2015 – Given to one social science faculty member at Rice University., Rice University

     Cherry Professor of the Year Award, Finalist, 2015 – national award “designed to honor great teachers to stimulate discussion in the academy about teaching, and to encourage departments and institutions to value their own great teachers.” , Baylor University

     George R. Brown Prize for Superior Teaching,

     2011 Betty Vetter Award for Research , Women in Engineering ProActive Network (WEPAN)

     Nicolas Salgo Distinguished Teacher Award, Rice University (2008)

     Distinguished Teaching Contributions Award, 2008, Society of I/O Psychology (2008)

     Charles W. Duncan Jr. Achievement Award for Outstanding Faculty, Rice University (2008)

     Distinguished Teaching Contributions Award, 2007, Society of I/O Psychologists (SIOP) (2007)

     George R. Brown Award for Superior Teaching, Rice University (Spring, 2005)

     Brown Teaching Grant, Rice University (Spring, 2005)

     Julia Miles Chance Prize for Excellence in Teaching, Rice University (Spring 2005)

     Flanagan Award, SIOP (4/17/05)

     George R. Brown Award for Superior Teaching, Rice University (2004)

     Piper Foundation Teaching Award, Minnie Stevens Piper Foundation (2004)

     Graduate Student Association's Faculty Teaching/Mentoring Award, GSA (Spring 03)

     George R. Brown Prize for Excellence in Teaching, Rice (Spring 03)

     Nominee for SIOP Distinguished Teaching Award, Division 14 of APA (Summer 03)

     Society for the Teaching of Psychology (APA Division 2) Award, National Institute for the Teaching of Psychology (01/02/03)

     Women's Resource Center Impact Award, Women's Resource Center (01/2003)

     Nominee for Robert S. Daniel Award, Division 2 of APA (Spring 03)

     Nominated for the Robert S. Daniel Award, Division 2 of APA (2003)

     George R. Brown Award for Superior Teaching, Rice University (2002)

     The Society for the Teaching of Psychology Award, APA Division 2 (2003)

     Rice Premedical Society Outstanding Faculty Award, Premedical Society (2002)

     Grant entitled "The effects of childcare disruptions on working parents: An experience sampling method approach.", Department of Health and Human Service: Administration for Children and Families, ACF (Oct, 2000 - Oct, 2002)

     Impact Award, Women's Resource Center at Rice University (Feburary)

     Grant, Wayne F. Placek Small Grant Award (1999)

    Positions Held
     Ad Hoc Reviewer, Journal of Applied Psychology. (2002 - 2002)

     Reviewer, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. (2002 - 2002)

     Reviewer, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. (2002 - 2002)

     Reviewer, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. (2002 - 2002)