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Stanislav Sazykin
Senior Faculty Fellow
Senior Faculty Fellow in Physics and Astronomy
 
e-mail:sazykin@rice.edu
 
  • B.S. Physics/EE (1993) Moscow Institute of Physics of Technology, Moscow, Russia
  • B.S. Physics (1994) Utah State University, Logan, Utah
  • M.S. Physics (1996) Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow, Russia
  • Ph.D. Physics (2000) Utah State University, Logan, Utah
 
Primary Department
   Department of Physics and Astronomy
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Department Affiliations
 
  • Ken Kennedy Institute for Information Technology
  •  
    Professional membership
     

    AGU (American Geophysical Union, Space Physics and Aeronomy section): Member since 1996


    ACM (Association for Computing Machinery): Member since 2010.

     
    Professional membership
     

    AGU (American Geophysical Union, Space Physics and Aeronomy section): Member since 1996


    ACM (Association for Computing Machinery): Member since 2010.

     
    Websites
     Stanislav Sazykin's research web site
     
    Research Areas
     Physics of space plasmas: dynamics of the terrestrial ionosphere and magnetosphere (ionospheric electrodynamics, transport and instabilities in the plasma sheet, auroral physics), numerical modeling of planetary magnetospheres of Earth, Jupiter and Saturn. Space weather. High-performance computing.
     

    Research Statement

     

    S. Sazykin’s main interests are the physics of the Earth’s magnetosphere and solar-wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions, including physics of the ring current, field-aligned currents, and ionospheric electric fields, investigated with numerical modeling and data comparisons. His experience includes extensive development and use of the Rice Convection Model, a long-standing and widely respected research tool of the Rice space plasma physics group, as well as work with first-principles multi-fluid ionosphere models in conjunction with the RCM, and more recently, development and applications of “hybrid” models combining the RCM drift-physics code with global ideal magnetohydrodynamics models describing the electrodynamics of the Earth’s magnetosphere, and with first-principles ionospheric and thermospheric models. These newly-developed models, which include tools and techniques of high-performance computing, are being used to address the physics and practical consequences of magnetospheric storms, substorms, and other geomagnetic disturbances, , as well as guide data analysis from planetary plasma observations at Saturn.

     
    Selected Publications
     Refereed articles
     

    Yang, J., F. R. Toffoletto, R. A. Wolf, and S. Sazykin "On the contribution of plasma sheet bubbles to the storm time ring current." Journal of Geophysical Research--Space Physics, 120 (2015) : 7416-7432.


    http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015JA021398
     
     

    J. Huba and S. Sazykin "Storm time ionosphere and plasmasphere structuring: SAMI3-RCM simulation of the 31 March 2001 geomagnetic storm ." Geophysical Research Letters, 41(23) (2014) : 8208-8214.

     
     

    Yang, J., Wolf, R.A., Toffoletto, F.R.,Sazykin, S., Wang, C.-P.b "RCM-E simulation of bimodal transport in the plasma sheet." Geophysical Research Letters, 41(6): 1817-1822.

     
     

    J. Yang, R. A. Wolf, F. R. Toffoletto, S. Sazykin, C.-P. Wang "RCM-E simulation of bimodal transport in the plasma sheet." In Revision

     
     

    L. Rastätter, M. M. Kuznetsova, A. Glocer, D. Welling, X. Meng, J. Raeder, M. Wiltberger, V. K. Jordanova, Y. Yu, S. Zaharia, R. S. Weigel, S. Sazykin, R. Boynton, H. Wei, V. Eccles, W. Horton, M. L. Mays, J. Gannon "Geospace Environment Modeling 2008-2009 Challenge: Dst index." Space Weather, DOI: 10.1002/swe.20036 (2013) In Press

     
     

    Yang, J., R. A. Wolf, F. R. Toffoletto, and S. Sazykin (2013), RCM-E simulation of substorm growth phase arc associated with large-scale adiabatic convection, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 60176022, doi:10.1002/2013GL058253.


    http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2013GL058253
     
     

    Clausen, L. B. N., J. B. H. Baker, J. M. Ruohoniemi, R. A. Greenwald, E. G. Thomas, S. G. Shepherd, E. R. Talaat, W. A. Bristow, Y. Zheng, A. J. Coster, and S. Sazykin (2012), Large-scale observations of a subauroral polarization stream by midlatitude SuperDARN radars: Instantaneous longitudinal velocity variations, J. Geophys. Res., 117(A5), A05306,doi:10.1029/2011ja017232.

     
     

    Pembroke, A., F. Toffoletto, S. Sazykin, M. Wiltberger, J. Lyon, V. Merkin, and P. Schmitt (2012), Initial results from a dynamic coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-ring current modelJ. Geophys. Res., 117, A02211, doi:10.1029/2011JA016979.

     
     

    Yang, J., F. R. Toffoletto, R. A. Wolf, S. Sazykin, P. A. Ontiveros, and J. M. Weygand (2012), Large-scale current systems and ground magnetic disturbance during deep substorm injections, J. Geophys. Res., 117(A4), A04223,doi:10.1029/2011ja017415.

     
     

    Yang, J., F. R. Toffoletto, R. A. Wolf, and S. Sazykin (2011), RCM-E simulation of ion acceleration during an idealized plasma sheet bubble injection, J. Geophys. Res., 116(A5), A05207, doi:10.1029/2010ja016346.

     
     

    Hu, B., F. R. Toffoletto, R. A. Wolf, S. Sazykin, J. Raeder, D. Larson, and A. Vapirev (2010), One-way coupled OpenGGCM/RCM simulation of the 23 March 2007 substorm event, J. Geophys. Res., 115, A12205, doi:10.1029/2010JA015360.

     
     

    Liu, X., T. W. Hill, R. A. Wolf, S. Sazykin, R. W. Spiro, and H. Wu (2010), Numerical simulation of plasma transport in Saturn's inner magnetosphere using the Rice Convection Model, J. Geophys. Res., 115, A12254, doi:10.1029/2010JA015859.

     
     

    Wan, Y., S. Sazykin, R. A. Wolf, and M. K. Ozturk (2010), Drift Shell Bifurcation near the Dayside Magnetopause in Realistic Magnetospheric Magnetic Fields, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2010JA015395.

     
     

    Wolf, R. A., Y. Wan, X. Xing, J.-C. Zhang, and S. Sazykin (2009), Entropy and plasma sheet transport, J. Geophys. Res., 114, A00D05, doi:10.1029/2009JA014044.

     
     

    Zhang, J.-C., R. A. Wolf, R. W. Spiro, G. M. Erickson, S. Sazykin, F. R. Toffoletto, and J. Yang (2009), Rice Convection Model simulation of the substorm-associated injection of an observed plasma bubble into the inner magnetosphere: 2. Simulation results, J. Geophys. Res., 114, A08219, doi:10.1029/2009JA014131.

     
     

    Yang, J., F. R. Toffoletto, R. A. Wolf, S. Sazykin, R. W. Spiro, P. C. Brandt, M. G. Henderson, and H. U. Frey (2008), Rice Convection Model simulation of the 18 April 2002 sawtooth event and evidence for interchange instability, J. Geophys. Res., 113, A11214, doi:10.1029/2008JA013635.

     
     

    Yang Song, Stanislav Sazykin, Richard Wolf "On the relationship between kinetic and fluid formalisms for convection in the inner magnetosphere." Journal of Geophysical Research--Space physics, 113 (A08216) (2008) : doi:10.1029/2007JA012971.

     
     

    C.-S. Huang, S. Sazykin, J. L. Chau, N. Maruyama, and M.C. Kelley "Penetration electric fields: Efficiency and characteristic time scales." Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 69 (2007) : 1135-1146.

     
     

    J. Zhang, R. A. Wolf, S. Sazykin, and F. R. Toffoletto "Injection of a bubble into the inner magnetosphere." Geophysical Research Letters (2007)

     
     

    Biondi, M. A., S. Sazykin, B. G. Fejer, J. W. Meriwether, and C. G. Fesen "Equatorial and low latitude meridional winds: Measured quiet time variations with season and solar flux from 1980 to 1990." J. Geophys. Res., 104 (1999) : 17091-17106.

     
     

    C. Huang, S. Sazykin, R. Spiro, J. Goldstein, an G. Crowley "Storm-Time Penetration Electric Fields and Their Effects." EOS Transactions, 87(13) (28 March 2006) : 131.

     
     

    De Zeeuw, D. L., S. Sazykin, R. A. Wolf, T. I. Gombosi, A. J. Ridley, and G. Toth "Coupling of a global MHD code and an inner magnetosphere model: Initial results." J. Geophys. Res., 109 (2004) : A12219, doi:10.1029/2003JA010366.

     
     

    Ebihara, Y., M.-C. Fok, S. Sazykin, M. F. Thomsen, M. R. Hairston, D. S. Evans, F. J. Rich, and M. Ejiri "Ring current and magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling during the superstorm on 20 November 2003." J. Geophys. Res., 110 (2005) : A09S22, doi:10.1029/2004JA010924.

     
     

    Garner, T. W., R. A. Wolf, R. W. Spiro, W. J. Burke, B. G. Fejer, S. Sazykin, J. L. Roeder, and M. R. Hairston "Magnetospheric electric fields and plasma sheet injection to low L-shells during the June 4-5, 1991 magnetic storm: Comparison between the Rice Convection Model and observations." J. Geophys. Res., 109(A2) (2004) : 2214, doi: 10.1029/2003JA010208.

     
     

    Huang, C.-L., H. Spence, J. G. Lyon, F. R. Toffoletto, H. Singer, and S. Sazykin "Storm-Time Configuration of the Inner Magnetosphere: LFM MHD Simulations, Tsyganenko Model, and GOES Observations." J. Geophys. Res., 111(A11) (2006) : A11S16, doi:10.1029/2006JA011626.

     
     

    Huba, J. D., G. Joyce, S. Sazykin, R. A. Wolf, and R. W. Spiro "Simulation study of penetration electric fields on the low- to mid-latitude ionosphere." Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 (2005) : L23101, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024162.

     
     

    Lemon, C., R. A. Wolf, T. W. Hill, S. Sazykin, R. W. Spiro, F. R. Toffoletto, J. Birn, and M. Hesse "Magnetic storm ring current injection modeled with the Rice Convection Model and a self-consistent magnetic field." Geophys. Res. Lett., 31 (2004) : L21801, doi: 10.1029/2004GL020914.

     
     

    Maruyama, N., A.D. Richmond, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, M. V. Codrescu, S. Sazykin, F. R. Toffoletto, R. W. Spiro, and G. H. Millward "Interaction between direct penetration and disturbance dynamo electric fields in the storm-time equatorial ionosphere." Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 (2005) : L17105, doi:10.1029/2005GL023763,.

     
     

    R.A. Wolf, R.W. Spiro, S. Sazykin, and R. Toffoletto "How the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere Works: An Evolving Picture." J. Atmos. Solar-Terrestr. Phys. (2006) In Press

     
     

    Raitt, W. J., G. A. Berg, D. C. Thompson, and S. Sazykin "Measurements of electrical breakdown in the vicinity of a sounding rocket differentially charged to 10 kV." Adv. Space Res., 15 (1995) : 79-82.

     
     

    Sazykin, S., B. G. Fejer, Yu. I. Galperin, L. V. Zinin, S. A. Grigoriev, and M. Mendillo "Polarization jet events and excitation of weak SAR arcs." Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 (2002) : 10.1029/2001GL014388.

     
     

    Sazykin, S., R. A. Wolf, R. W. Spiro, T. I. Gombosi, D. L. De Zeeuw, and M. F. Thomsen "Interchange instability in the inner magnetosphere associated with geosynchronous particle flux decreases." Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 (2002) : 10.1029/ 2001GL014416.

     
     

    Toffoletto, F. R., S. Sazykin, R. W. Spiro, R. A. Wolf, and J. G. Lyon "RCM meets LFM: Initial results of one-way coupling." J. Atmos. Solar-Terrest. Phys., 66 (2004) : 1361-1370.

     
     

    Toffoletto, F. R., S. Sazykin, R. W. Spiro, and R. A. Wolf "Inner magnetospheric modeling with the Rice Convection Model." Space Science Reviews, 107 (2003) : 175-196.

     
     

    Toth, G., I. V. Sokolov, T. I. Gombosi, D. R. Chesney, C. R. Clauer, D. L. De Zeeuw, K. C. Hansen, K. J. Kane, W. B. Manchester, R. C. Oehmke, K. G. Powell, A. J. Ridley, I. I. Roussev, Q. F. Stout, O. Volberg, R. A. Wolf, S. Sazykin, A. Chan, B. Yu, J. Kota "Space Weather Modeling Framework: A New Tool for the Space Science Community." J. Geophys. Res., 110 (2005) : A12226, doi:10.1029/2005JA011126.

     
     

    Wolf, R. A., R. W. Spiro, S. Sazykin, and F. R. Toffoletto "Use of Euler Potentials for Describing Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling." J. Geophys. Res., 111 (2006) : A07315,doi:10.1029/2005JA011558.

     
     Book chapters
     

    R. A. Wolf, R. W. Spiro, S. Sazykin, F. R. Toffoletto, and J. Yang "Forty-Seven Years of the Rice Convection Model." Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Solar System (2015) In Press

     
     

    Sazykin, S. "Magnetospheric Electric Fields and Current Systems." Space Weather Fundamentals (2015) In Revision

     
     

    Sazykin, S., R. W. Spiro, R. A. Wolf, F. R. Toffoletto, N. Tsyganenko, J. Goldstein, and M. Hairston "Modeling inner magnetopsheric electric fields: Latest self-consistent results." The Inner Magnetosphere: Physics and Modeling, Geophysical Monograph 115 (2005) : 263-269.

     
     

    Wolf, R. A., S. Sazykin, X. Xing, R. W. Spiro, F. R. Toffoletto, D. L. De Zeeuw, T. I. Gombosi, and J. Goldstein "Direct effects of the IMF on the inner magnetosphere." Inner Magnetosphere Interactions: New Perspective from Imaging, AGU monograph, Geophysical Monograph 159 (2005) : 127-139.

     
    Presentations
     Conference Paper
     

    "Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling During the June 22-24, 2015 Magnetic Storm (paper SA44A-07)." 2015 Fall AGU meeting, San Francisco, CA. (December 17, 2015)

     
     

    "SAPS dynamics in RCM simulations." NSF CEDAR Workshop, Seattle, WA. (June 23, 2015)

     
     

    "Numerical Simulations of Planetary  Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Interactions: Role of interchange instability in  dynamics of inner magnetospheres  of Earth and Saturn." ASTRONUM 2014, Long Beach, CA. (June 22, 2014) With Xin Liu, Tom Hill, Richard Wolf, and Jian Yang

     
     Invited Talks
     

    "Dynamics of Subauroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) Structures (paper SA23E03)." 2015 Fall AGU meeting, San Francisco, CA. (December 15, 2015)

     
     

    "Rice Convection Model:  Present, Near Future, and Role of CCMC." 7th Biannual Community-Coordinated Modeling Center Workshop, Annapolis, MD. (April 7, 2014) With R. A. Wolf, F. R. Toffoletto

     
     

    Sazykin, S., X. Liu, T. W. Hill, and R. A. Wolf (2013) Numerical simulation of plasma convection in Saturn's and Earth's magnetopsheres, an invited talk presented at the AGU Chapman Conference on Fundamental Properties and Processes of Magnetotail, March 14, 2013, Reykjavik, Iceland.

     

     
     

    Sazykin, S. (2012), Rice Convection Model: An update, talk at the 6th NASA-NSF CCMC workshop, Key Largo, FL, Jan. 28.

     
     

    Sazykin, S., R. W. Spiro, R. A. Wolf, F. Toffoletto, J. Baker, J. M. Ruohoniemi (2012), Evolution of Storm-time Subauroral Electric Fields: RCM Event Simulations, paper SM13C-03 (invited) presented at 2012 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, Calif., 3-7 Dec.

     
     

    Sazykin, S., R. W. Spiro, R. A. Wolf, F. Toffoletto,  J. Huba (2012), Modeling Storm-Time Ionospheric Dynamics with RCM-SAMI3: Progress and Challenges, paper SA31C-02 presented at 2012 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, Calif., 3-7 Dec.

     
     

    Sazykin, S., (2012) SAPS Electric Fields: Ionospheric observations come close to what M-I coupling modeling predicts, talk at the 2012 NSF CEDAR Workshop, Santa Fe, NM, June 26.

     
     

    Sazykin, S., R. W. Spiro, R. A. Wolf, Y. Song, and F.Toffoletto, Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling at Subauroral Latitudes (Invited), Abstract SA34-01 presented at 2010 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, Calif., 13-17 Dec.

     
     

    Sazykin S., Y. Song, R. A. Wolf, R. W. Spiro, F. R. Toffoletto, J. Yang, J.-C. Zhang, and P. Ontiveros, Modeling of auroral signatures of substorm processes in the inner magnetosphere, Invited talk at the 10th International Conference on Substorms, San Luis Obispo, Calif, March 25, 2010.

     
     

    Sazykin, S., Penetration Electric Fields in the Ionosphere: A Theoretical Perspective, an invited talk at the Air Force Orbital Resources Ionosphere Conference (ORION), January 14, 2010, Dayton, Ohio.

     
     

    Sazykin, S., Rice Convection Model, paper presented at the 2010 CCMC workshop on January 26, 2010, Key Largo, Florida

     
     Lectures
     

    "Invited Tutorial: Coupling of the Rice Convection Model to global MHD codes." 2004 Geospace Environment Modeling Workshop, Snowmass, CO. (June 2004)

     
     Other
     

    S. Sazykin, R. W. Spiro, and R. A. Wolf, Role of Time-Varying Convection Electric Field on the Fine Structure in Cold Plasma Density Outside the Plasmapause, paper SM52a-02 presented at the 2011 Fall AGU meeting, San Francisco, December 9, 2011.

     
     

    "Simulation Studies of Storm-Time Ionospheric Electrodynamics (conference presentation).." AGU Chapman Conference "Modeling Ionosphere/Thermosphere System", Charleson, SC. (May 10, 2011) With R. W. Spiro, R. A. Wolf, J. Huba, G. Joyce, N. Maruyama, T. J. Fuller-Rowell

     
     

    "Storm-time Signatures of High-Latitude Convection on Subauroral, Middle and Low Latitude Ionosphere." 2009 Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, San Francisco. (December 14, 2009) With R. W. Spiro, R. A. Wolf, and Y. Song

     
     Posters
     

    " Role of Mesoscale Convection in the Inner Magnetosphere (paper SM32C-4255)." 2014 Fall AGU meeting, San Francisco, CA. (December 16, 2014) With R. A. Wolf, J. Yang, F. R. Toffoletto, R. W. Spiro

     
     

    Sazykin, S., R. W. Spiro, R. A. Wolf, F. R. Toffoletto, J. Yang (2012), Modeling of substorms and their auroral signatures, talk given at the 11th International Conference on Substorms (ICS-11):  Luneburg, Germany, Sept 4.

     
     

    Spiro, R. W., S. Sazykin, Y. Song, F. Toffoletto, and R. A. Wolf, Longitude and IMF By Effects on Stormtime Low-Latitude Prompt-Penetration Electric Fields (poster), Abstract SA51B-1618 presented at 2010 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, Calif., 13-17 Dec.

     
     

    advisor to student (student is first author).  "Plasma convection with parallel electric field in the RCM." 2009 Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, San Francisco. (December 14, 2009) With Yang Song, Stanislav Sazykin, Richard A. Wolf, and Frank Toffoletto

     
     

    advisor to student (student is first author).  "Role of Pitch Angle Anisotropy in Ring Current Electrodynamics." 2009 Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, San Francisco. (December 14, 2009) With Y. Wan, S. Sazykin, M.-C. Fok, N. Buzulukova, R. A. Wolf

     
     

    advisor to student (student is first author).  "Role of parallel electric fields in numerical simulations of Earth’s inner magnetosphere-ionosphere coupled system." 9th International School on Space Plasma Simulations, Paris, France. (July 5, 2009) With Yang Song, Stanislav Sazykin, Richard A. Wolf, Robert Spiro, Frank Toffoletto

     
     

    "Simulations of Ionospheric Signatures of Inner Magnetospheric Particle Injections in Substorms and Geomagnetic Storms with Rice Convection Model." 9th School on Space Simulations, Paris, France. (July 5, 2009) With S. Sazykin, Y. Song, R. A. Wolf, R. W. Spiro, F.R. Toffoletto

     
     

    advisor to student (student poster).  "Space Weather Prediction with the Rice Convection Model ." 2009 Space Weather Week, Boulder, CO. (April 29, 2009) With Y. Song, S. Sazykin, J. Yang, P. Ontiveros, F. R. Toffoletto, R. W. Spiro, R. A. Wolf

     
     Seminar Speaker
     

    "Auroral dynamics and magnetospheric processes: First-principles modeling with the Rice Convection Model ." NCAR Hight Altitude Observatory Seminar, Boulder, CO. (April 22, 2009)

     
     

    "Computer Simulations of Space Plasmas." Ken Kennedy Institute Monthly Luncheon, Rice University. (November 6, 2009)

     
     Session Chair
     

    "CEDAR-GEM session at the mini-GEM workshop (session co-chair)." mini-GEM NSF workshop, San Francisco, CA. (December 13, 2015)

     
     

    "Storm-Time Inner Magnetosphere Convection (session co-chair)." NSF GEM Workshop, Snowmass, CO. (June 17, 2015)

     
     

    "Storm-Time Inner Magnetosphere Convection (workshop session)." 2014 NSF GEM workshop, Portsmouth, VA. (June 17, 2014)

     
     

    "Near-Earth plasma and fields (session chair)." NSF GEM Workshop, Snowmass, CO. (June 21, 2012)

     
     

    "Near-Earth Magnetosphere: plasma, fields, and coupling (session chair)." NSF GEM 2011 workshop, Santa Fe, NM. (June 29, 2011)

     
     

    "(Special Session Organizer) Unsolved Problems in Ionospheric Electrodynamics." 2009 Fall AGU meeting, San Francisco, CA. (December 2009)

     
     

    "Near-Earth Magnetosphere: Plasma, Fields, and Coupling." NSF Global Environment Modeling (GEM) 2008 workshop, Zermatt, UT. (June 19, 2007)

     
     

    "Electrodynamics of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere coupling (Co-Convener)." 2005 CEDAR Workshop, Santa Fe, NM. (June 2005)

     
     

    "Magnetospheric penetration electric fields (Co-Convener)." Workshop at MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA. (November 2005)

     
     Workshops
     

    "Modeling total electron content (TEC) changes in the ionosphere during geomagnetic storms (conference talk),." NSF GEM 2011 workshop, Santa Fe, NM. (June 27, 2011)

     
     

    "RCM plasma boundary condition in storm simulations (conference talk),." NSF GEM 2011 workshop, Santa Fe, NM. (June 29, 2011)

     
    Editorial Positions
     Editor for Special Issue, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics. Elsevier. (2006 - 2006)

    Supervised Theses & Dissertations
     Yue Fei, Ph.D. Simulation of Radiation Belt Electron Diffusion. (2006) (Committee Member)

     Yang Song, M.S. On the relationship between kinetic and fluid formalisms for convection in the inner magnetosphere. (2007) (Thesis or Dissertation Director)

     Jian Yang, M.S. Interchange Instability in a Rice Convection Model Simulation of the 18 April 2002 Sawtooth Event. (2008) (Committee Member)

     Jian Yang, Ph.D. Inner Magnetospheric Modeling Duing Geomagnetic Active Times. (2009) (Committee Member)

     Yang Song, Ph.D. Space Weather Event Modeling with the Rice Convection Model (defended). (2010) (Thesis or Dissertation Director)

     Yifei Wan, M.S. Drift Shell Bifurcation Near the Dayside Magnetopause: IMF By Effects (defended). (2010) (Thesis or Dissertation Director)